Use of over-the-counter medications during pregnancy.
ABSTRACT The most common medications used in pregnancy are nonprescription or over-the-counter medications, although there has been little research on their risks or safety. We describe the patterns of over-the-counter medication use among pregnant women.
Data were collected in 2 case-control studies of birth defects: the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (BDS) and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS).
Among 7563 mothers of malformed and nonmalformed offspring in the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study and 2970 mothers of nonmalformed offspring in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and pseudoephedrine were used by at least 65%, 18%, and 15%, respectively. Among women in the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study, the use in pregnancy of aspirin and chlorpheniramine decreased from 1976 to 2004 and of ibuprofen, pseudoephedrine, diphenhydramine, dextromethorphan, and guaifenesin increased. Among women in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the use of acetaminophen, pseudoephedrine, diphenhydramine, and guaifenesin was higher during pregnancy than before pregnancy.
Findings show that over-the-counter medications are used by most pregnant women. Studies that examine specific over-the-counter medications in relation to specific birth defects are necessary to better inform pregnant women about risks and safety.
- SourceAvailable from: Cristina Mogosan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are a category of medication which can be consumed by patients without a medical prescription. Because many drugs are available as OTC products and are considered safe to use, pregnant women are using more and more these drugs without medical advice and without knowing the risks to the fetus. The availability of these products and the publicity encourage drug consumption and self-medication, giving patients total control of their complaints. The number of drugs used during pregnancy is continuously increasing and the most used drugs are: analgesics, antipyretics, decongestants, antihistamines, antitussives and expectorants, antacids, antidiarrheal and laxative agents. Most of them don't have a well established safety profile if used during pregnancy. While some can be considered safe to use due to clinical experience, others are considered teratogenic or should be avoided in the first period or last period of pregnancy. Before using any drug in pregnancy the risk-benefit ratio should be assessed and the benefits of the drugs for the mother should always outweigh the risks to the fetus.
- Facts, views & vision in ObGyn. 01/2010; 2(2):74-87.
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ABSTRACT: Our aim was to replicate and extend the recently found association between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms in school-age children.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e108210. · 3.53 Impact Factor