Explaining the decline in coronary heart disease mortality in Finland between 1982 and 1997
ABSTRACT In Finland since the 1980s, coronary heart disease mortality has declined more than might be predicted by risk factor reductions alone. The aim of this study was to assess how much of the decline could be attributed to improved treatments and risk factor reductions. The authors used the cell-based IMPACT mortality model to synthesize effectiveness of treatments and risk factor reductions with data on treatments administered to patients and trends in cardiovascular risk factors in the population. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured in random samples of patients in 1982 (n=8,501) and 1997 (n=4,500). Mortality and treatment data were obtained from the National Causes of Death Register, Hospital Discharge Register, social insurance data, and medical records. Estimated and observed changes in coronary heart disease mortality were used as main outcome measures. Between 1982 and 1997, coronary heart disease mortality rates declined by 63%, with 373 fewer deaths in 1997 than expected from baseline mortality rates in 1982. Improved treatments explained approximately 23% of the mortality reduction, and risk factors explained some 53-72% of the reduction. These findings highlight the value of a comprehensive strategy that promotes primary prevention programs and actively supports secondary prevention. It also emphasizes the importance of maximizing population coverage of effective treatments.
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ABSTRACT: Asthma and allergies are common and cause substantial burden in symptoms and suffering, hospitalizations and medication costs. However, despite the high prevalence, asthma burden has already decreased in Finland in 2000s. We carried out an asthma barometer survey in all Finnish pharmacies to study changes in asthma severity and control, and use of health care services from 2001 to 2010. Asthma severity, comorbid allergic conditions, and use of medication and health care services were assessed in subjects who purchased asthma or allergy medication from the pharmacies all across the country during one week in 2001 and again in 2010. In 2001, 3,062 patients (mean age, 49 years), and in 2010, 1,114 patients (mean age, 51 years) participated. In 2001 90% and in 2010 73% of the respondents reported physician-diagnosed asthma and were entitled to special reimbursement for their drug costs, i.e., they needed regular maintenance treatment. In 2001, 10% of the asthmatics regarded their disease as severe, compared with 4% in 2010, while the figures for mild asthma were 45% and 62%, respectively (p < 0.001). The proportion of patients needing emergency care during the last year decreased from 34% (2001) to 14% (2010) (p < 0.001) and the need for hospitalizations from 18% to 6% (p < 0.001). Smoking reduced from 24% to 18% among asthmatics ( p = 0.002). In 2010, risk factors for severe asthma were older age, comorbid atopic eczema, and food allergy. During ten years, self-reported asthma severity has reduced and disease control improved in Finland.
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ABSTRACT: An analysis of high-sensitive factor I and C-reactive proteins as biomarkers for coronary artery disease has been performed from 19 anticipated cohort studies that included 21,567 participants having no information about coronary artery disease. Besides, the clinical implications of statin therapy initiated due to assessment of factor I and C-reactive proteins have also been modeled during studies. The measure of risk discrimination (C-index) was increased (by 0.0101) as per the prognostic model for coronary artery disease with respect to sex, smoking status, age, blood pressure, total cholesterol level along with diabetic history characteristic parameters. The C-index was further raised by 0.0045 and 0.0053 when factor I and C-reactive proteins based information were added, respectively which finally predicted 10-year risk categories as: high (> 20%), medium (10% to < 20%), and low (< 10%) risks. We found 2,254 persons (among 15,000 adults (age ≥ 45 years)) would initially be classified as being at medium risk for coronary artery disease when only conventional risk factors were used as calculated risk. Besides, persons with a predicted risk of more than 20% as well as for persons suffering from other risk factors (i.e. diabetes), statin therapy was initiated (irrespective of their decade old predicted risk). We conclude that under current treatment guidelines assessment of factor I and C-reactive proteins levels (as biomarker) in people at medium risk for coronary artery disease could prevent one additional coronary artery disease risk over a period a decade for every 390-500 people screened.International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 01/2014; 7(12):5158-69. · 1.42 Impact Factor
Article: hypertension and diabetes