Characterisation of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) associated with colisepticaemia compared to faecal isolates from healthy birds.
ABSTRACT A total of 114 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates were collected from cases of colisepticaemia occurring in broilers (77) and layers (37) within Ireland. In addition 45 strains isolated from faeces of healthy birds were included for comparison. All isolates were serogrouped, and examined for known virulence factors, mostly by PCR. The O78 serogroup represented 55 and 27% of broiler and layer colisepticaemic isolates respectively. All isolates were positive for curli fimbriae (crl, csg) and negative for afimbrial adhesin (afa). S-fimbrial (sfa) sequences were present in 8.8% of septicaemic isolates and 8.9% of healthy bird isolates. The majority of E. coli from cases of colisepticaemia (97.4%) and healthy bird (95.6%) isolates were positive for aerobactin (aer), and temperature sensitive haemagglutinin (tsh) was similarly detected in high numbers in 93.9 and 93.3%, respectively. In comparison to E. coli isolates from the faeces of healthy birds, a significantly higher percentage of isolates from septicaemic cases possessed Type 1 fimbriae (fimC) and increased serum survival (iss) gene sequences. Forty-seven (41.2%) isolates from septicaemic birds possessed P-fimbriae (pap) gene sequences, compared with only 15.6% from E. coli isolated from healthy birds. Haemolysin (hlyE) sequences were detected in 46.7% of isolates from healthy birds in comparison with 6.1% of septicaemic isolates. Sequences encoding colicin V (cvaC) were detected in 99.1% of septicaemic isolates and 82.2% of isolates from healthy birds. The K1 capsule was only present in two septicaemic isolates, both taken from layers. Motility was detected in 36.8% of E. coli isolated from cases of septicaemia, compared with 93.3% of isolates from healthy birds. These results demonstrate the presence of 11 virulence genes in E. coli isolated from cases of colisepticaemia within Ireland, and indicate the prevalence of iss and fimC.
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ABSTRACT: Genomic suppression subtractive hybridization was carried out between an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) and an E. coli isolate from apparently healthy poultry (avian fecal E. coli or AFEC) to understand the genomic differences between APEC and AFEC and to identify potential virulence genes. In an effort to ensure that the genes identified were novel, tester and driver strains were chosen by their similarities in certain known virulence genes. In total, 24 subtractive hybridization fragments specific for APEC were obtained. Eight of the fragments were phage or plasmid related, 13 matched to chromosomal regions and three did not show homology to any known genes. We further determined the association of APEC-specific fragments with virulence by screening a collection of APEC, AFEC and human uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) using the PCR. Chromosomally located fragments that matched to the ireA iron-responsive element gene, the tia invasion determinant gene, the ibeA invasion gene, genes encoding P pili and a gene encoding aldo/keto reductase were present at significantly higher frequencies in APEC and UPEC than in AFEC, suggesting their contribution to the virulence of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. No genes were found to be specific to APEC alone.FEMS Microbiology Letters 10/2006; 262(2):193-200. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is one of the most economically devastating pathogens affecting the poultry industry. This group of extra-intestinal E. coli causes a variety of clinical conditions including airsacculitis and cellulitis. The economic impact of APEC is mainly due to mortality, slower growth rates, and carcass downgrading. In commercial broiler operations, APEC infections are controlled indirectly by vaccination against other respiratory diseases and minimizing stress conditions, and directly by administration of antimicrobial agents to suppress the infection in already infected flocks. The fact that most APEC strains possess some common virulence factors suggests that an effective vaccine against APEC is a viable option. The most important virulence factors that have been investigated over the years include type I and P fimbriae, aerobactin iron-acquisition system, and serum resistance traits. Despite the potential for developing an efficacious vaccine to combat this economically important poultry disease, several obstacles hinder such efforts. Those obstacles include the cost, vaccine delivery method and timing of vaccination as the birds should be immune to APEC by 21 days of age. Herein, we review the various attempts to develop an effective vaccine against the respiratory form of APEC diseases in poultry. We also discuss in-depth the potentials and limitations of such vaccines.Veterinary microbiology. 05/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Birds of the Cracidae family (curassows, guans, and chachalacas) are endemic of the Neotropics and 50 species are currently classified. Brazil has 22 species, seven of which are considered threatened. The Alagoas Curassow (Pauxi mitu) species is considered extinct in the wild; but about 120 birds are alive in captivity. Conservation of this species depends entirely on correct management. Health reports of both wildlife and captive curassows are rare. In this study the presence of Escherichia coli was evaluated in 23 healthy Alagoas Curassows from two private breeding centres. E. coli was isolated from cloacal swabs, and the presence of genes encoding cytotoxic necrotising factor 1 (cnf1), alpha-haemolysin (hly), aerobactin (iuc), serum resistance (iss) and the following adhesions: S fimbriae (sfa), pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap) and temperature-sensitive haemagglutinin (tsh) were investigated. E. coli was isolated from 78.3% (18/23) of the birds, and the percentage of curassows colonized by E. coli was similar between the two facilities. From the 22 E. coli isolates, 15 (68.2%) were positive for at least one virulence factor by PCR, and the most frequently found gene was iss (50%). No curassows had clinical signs of disease. Nevertheless, the presence of some E. coli strains may be a concern to the wildlife in captivity. Additional health surveillance studies are essential to guarantee successful conservation programmes for threatened cracids in Brazil.Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 04/2013; 33(4):523-527. · 0.54 Impact Factor