Improved prognostication in soft tissue sarcoma: independent information from vascular invasion, necrosis, growth pattern, and immunostaining using whole-tumor sections and tissue microarrays.
ABSTRACT In 140 mixed primary soft tissue sarcomas with a median follow-up of 6 years, the prognostic importance of tumor size, tumor depth, grade, necrosis, vascular invasion, and peripheral growth pattern (pushing versus infiltrating) was evaluated on whole-tumor sections. Immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67, p53, cyclin A, bcl-2, beta-catenin, CD44, and P-glycoprotein was determined using tissue microarray from the peripheral growth zone. Local recurrences developed in 17% of the patients and correlated with necrosis, vascular invasion, and cyclin A expression. No local recurrence developed in tumors with a pushing growth pattern, regardless of tumor grade and depth. Metastasis developed in 39% of the patients. Vascular invasion was identified in 36% of the tumors and was the strongest prognostic factor for metastasis with a hazard ratio of 3.5. Growth pattern and tumor necrosis were also strong prognostic factors for metastasis, whereas malignancy grade, tumor size, and tumor depth did not have any independent prognostic value. Immunostaining showed independent prognostic information for Ki-67, beta-catenin, CD44, and P-glycoprotein. The results indicate that whole-tumor sections could facilitate identification of vascular invasion, necrosis, and peripheral growth pattern and that immunohistochemical profiling from the growth zone also provides independent prognostic information for metastasis in soft tissue sarcoma.
- SourceAvailable from: Tsuyoshi Saito[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nuclear beta-catenin staining in soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) has been shown to correlate with tumor progression as assessed by proliferative activity or poor prognosis. Frequent activation of Wnt signaling pathway has been also shown in synovial sarcoma (SS), suggesting a specific role of this pathway in SS. We examined roles of nuclear beta-catenin staining within soft tissue sarcomas. Immunohistochemical detection of nuclear beta-catenin accumulation correlated with cyclin D1 overexpression in spindle cell and pleomorphic sarcomas (P = .037), and the expression of these proteins evenly distributed throughout each section. In some cases, strong beta-catenin nuclear staining was observed in highly pleomorphic and mitotic cells. Furthermore, tumors with nuclear beta-catenin accumulation showed statistically significant increasing cyclin D1 mRNA expression level compared with those without (P = .023). Cyclin D1 mRNA expression levels were statistically higher in tumors with cyclin D1 overexpression than in tumors without (P = .037), suggesting that cyclin D1 overexpression is due to transcriptional activation. However, these correlations could not be detected in SS. In biphasic SS, beta-catenin nuclear staining was observed in spindle cells, whereas cyclin D1 nuclear staining was seen in glandular areas where beta-catenin kept membranous expression. Mutations in exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene and in the mutation cluster region of adenomatous polyposis coli gene were absent in this series of cases. Thus, cyclin D1 could be considered as one of the targets of the nuclear beta-catenin in spindle cell and pleomorphic sarcomas. A possible association between beta-catenin accumulation and spindle cell morphogenesis may exist in SS.Human Pathlogy 07/2006; 37(6):689-97. DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2006.01.017 · 2.81 Impact Factor