This investigation describes the discovery of novel possible cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for frontotemporal dementia (FTD) using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Sixteen clinically diagnosed FTD patients and 12 non-demented controls were included in the study. CSF was collected and analyzed for protein expression by SELDI-TOF MS. The samples were analyzed on four different array surfaces using two different energy-absorbing molecules as matrices. In total each sample was subjected to eight different surface/matrix conditions. About 2000 protein peaks (mass/charge ratios) were detected. Forty-two peaks were differentially expressed in FTD (P < 0.01). After exclusion of peaks with low signal-to-noise ratio and/or poor resolution and peaks representing differentially charged proteins, 10 peaks remained, five of which were increased and five decreased in FTD cases compared to controls. Using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the combination of these biomarkers discriminated FTD from non-demented controls with a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 83% and an accuracy of 89%. Five of the peaks were purified further and identified by tandem MS as a fragment of neurosecretory protein VGF, transthyretin, S-cysteinylated transthyretin, truncated cystatin C and a fragment of chromogranin B. With use of these potential biomarkers, FTD can be distinguished from control subjects with high accuracy in this pilot study.
"In the case of SCG2 and CMGA, an alteration in three peptides is described as potential marker for multiple sclerosis, decreased SCG1441–493
 and SCG1306–365
 and increased CMGA194–213
, . SCG1441–493 has also been found decreased in frontotemporal dementia . Although we did not identify any of SCG1441–493, SCG1306–365, or CMGA194–213 as intact peptides, we identified several forms spanning parts of these sites (Figure 6). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the analysis of endogenous peptides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by mass spectrometry. A method was developed for preparation of peptide extracts from CSF. Analysis of the extracts by offline LC-MALDI MS resulted in the detection of 3,000-4,000 peptide-like features. Out of these, 730 peptides were identified by MS/MS. The majority of these peptides have not been previously reported in CSF. The identified peptides were found to originate from 104 proteins, of which several have been reported to be involved in different disorders of the central nervous system. These results support the notion that CSF peptidomics may be viable complement to proteomics in the search of biomarkers of CNS disorders.
PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e42555. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0042555 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"VGF4.8 and other similar VGF peptides have been reported in Alzheimer's disease [11,13-15], amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) , and frontotemporal dementia . Carrette et al reported that VGEEDEEAAEAEAEAEEAER peptide, which was between the aminoacid 378 to 397 of neurosecretory protein VGF precursor, from the CSF in Alzheimer's disease . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute encephalopathy includes rapid deterioration and has a poor prognosis. Early intervention is essential to prevent progression of the disease and subsequent neurologic complications. However, in the acute period, true encephalopathy cannot easily be differentiated from febrile seizures, especially febrile seizures of the complex type. Thus, an early diagnostic marker has been sought in order to enable early intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify a novel marker candidate protein differentially expressed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with encephalopathy using proteomic analysis.
For detection of biomarkers, CSF samples were obtained from 13 children with acute encephalopathy and 42 children with febrile seizure. Mass spectral data were generated by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) technology, which is currently applied in many fields of biological and medical sciences. Diagnosis was made by at least two pediatric neurologists based on the clinical findings and routine examinations. All specimens were collected for diagnostic tests and the remaining portion of the specimens were used for the SELDI-TOF MS investigations.
In experiment 1, CSF from patients with febrile seizures (n = 28), patients with encephalopathy (n = 8) (including influenza encephalopathy (n = 3), encephalopathy due to rotavirus (n = 1), human herpes virus 6 (n = 1)) were used for the SELDI analysis. In experiment 2, SELDI analysis was performed on CSF from a second set of febrile seizure patients (n = 14) and encephalopathy patients (n = 5). We found that the peak with an m/z of 4810 contributed the most to the separation of the two groups. After purification and identification of the 4.8-kDa protein, a 4.8-kDa proteolytic peptide fragment from the neurosecretory protein VGF precursor (VGF4.8) was identified as a novel biomarker for encephalopathy.
Expression of VGF4.8 has been reported to be decreased in pathologically degenerative changes such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia, and encephalopathy. Thus, the VGF4.8 peptide might be a novel marker for degenerative brain conditions.
"VGF was identified in a separate study to be altered in ALS.(Pasinetti et al., 2006) Chromogranin B is a potential marker for FTLD-TDP as it is associated with increased risk for ALS, (Gros-Louis et al., 2009) and cystatin C showed the most promise in being specific to FTLD (or a FTLD subtype) with an opposite direction of change from AD patients.(Ruetschi et al., 2005) As part of a larger targeted proteomic study,(Hu et al., 2010b) we measured CSF levels of 151 proteins in multiplexed immunoassays in 23 patients with autopsy-confirmed FTLD-TDP or FTLD- Tau, along with 80 living patients with a clinical syndrome suggestive of underlying FTLD pathology (bv-FTD, PPA, CBS) whose CSF levels of AD-biomarke"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuronal and glial changes associated with tau, TAR DNA binding protein of ∼43 kDa (TDP-43), and fused in sarcoma (FUS) together constitute the pathologic spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Most patients with FTLD present with prominent behavior or language changes, sometimes accompanied by extrapyramidal symptoms or motor neuron disease. Identification of FTLD patients with mutations in genes for tau, TDP-43, and FUS lends strong support for their pathogenic roles in FTLD, and elucidation of their dysfunction will pave the way for development of substrate specific therapy. However, there remains no reliable biomarker for early detection of FTLD or prediction of underlying FTLD pathologic change. Clinical syndromes usually reflects the earliest affected brain regions where atrophy can be visualized on structural MRI, but neither clinical nor structural imaging-based biomarkers has been accurately correlated with underlying pathology on the individual patient level. Biochemical markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have also been investigated in FTLD and related disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). However, their accuracy and pathologic significance need to be confirmed in future multi-center studies. Here we review the progress made in FTLD biomarkers, including clinical phenotype/feature characterization, neuropsychological analysis, CSF and plasma analytes, and patterns of brain atrophy and network dysfunction detectable on brain imaging. Given the pathologic overlap of FTLD with ALS and PSP, collaboration with specialists in those fields will be essential in the translation of promising FTLD biomarkers into clinical practice.
Progress in Neurobiology 04/2011; 95(4):636-48. DOI:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2011.04.012 · 9.99 Impact Factor
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