Trypanosoma cruzi surface molecule gp90 downregulates invasion of gastric mucosal epithelium in orally infected mice.
ABSTRACT Experiments were performed to elucidate why Trypanosoma cruzi isolates 573 and 587 differ widely in their efficiency to infect gastric mucosal epithelium when administered orally to mice. These isolates have the same surface profile and a similar capacity to enter host cells in vitro. Metacyclic forms of isolates 573 and 587 and the control CL isolate expressed similar levels of gp82, which is a cell invasion-promoting molecule. Expression of gp90, a molecule that downregulates cell invasion, was lower in the CL isolate. Consistent with this profile, approximately threefold fewer parasites of isolates 573 and 587 entered epithelial HeLa cells, as compared to the CL isolate. No difference in the rate of intracellular parasite replication was observed between isolates. When given orally to mice, metacyclic forms of isolate 573, like the CL isolate, produced high parasitemia (>10(6) parasites per ml at the peak), killing approximately 40% of animals, whereas infection with isolate 587 resulted in low parasitemia (<10(5) parasites per ml), with zero mortality. On the fourth day post-inoculation, tissue sections of the mouse stomach stained with hematoxylin and eosin showed a four to sixfold higher number of epithelial cells infected with isolate 573 or CL than with isolate 587. The rate of intracellular parasite development was similar in all isolates. Mimicking in vivo infection, parasites were treated with pepsin at acidic pH and then assayed for their ability to enter HeLa cells or explanted gastric epithelial cells. Pepsin extensively digested gp90 from isolate 573 and significantly increased invasion of both cells, but had minor effect on gp90 or infectivity of isolates 587 and CL. The profile of g82 digestion was similar in isolates 573 and 587, with partial degradation to a approximately 70 kDa fragment, which preserved the target cell binding domain as well as the region involved in gastric mucin adhesion. Gp82 from CL isolate was resistant to pepsin. Assays with parasites recovered from the mouse stomach 2 h after oral infection showed an extensive digestion of gp90 and increased infectivity of isolate 573, but not of isolate 587 or CL. Our data indicate that T. cruzi infection in vitro does not always correlate with in vivo infection because host factors may act on parasites, modulating their infectivity, as is the case of pepsin digestion of isolate 573 gp90.
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ABSTRACT: We examined the requirement of Tropanosoma cruzi protein tyrosine phosphorylation for parasite entry into mammalian cells and analyzed the profile of phosphorylated proteins in infective trypomastigotes. Treatment of metacyclic or tissue culture trypomastigotes with genistein, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinase activity, significantly inhibited invasion of cultured HeLa cells. A soluble factor, contained in HeLa cell extract and absent in the extract ot T. cruzi-resistant K562 cells, greatly enhanced phosphorylation levels of a 175-kDa protein (p175) in trypomastigotes. Genistein inhibited p175 tyrosine phosphorylation. P175 was undetectable in noninvasive epimastigotes. The phosphorylation-inducing activity of HeLa cell extract was abrogated by adsorption with metacyclic trypomastigotes but not with epimastigotes or when it was mixed with recombinant protein J18, which contains the entire peptide sequence of gp82, a metacyclic stage-specific surface glycoprotein implicated in target cell invasion. These data suggest that, in metacyclic trypomastigotes, gp82 is the signaling receptor that mediates protein tyrosine phosphorylation necessary for host cell invasion.Experimental Parasitology 07/1998; 89(2):188-94. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the Amazon Basin, Trypanosoma cruzi infection is enzootic, involving a variety of wild mammals and at least 10 of the 16 reported silvatic triatomine bug species. Human cases of Chagas disease are increasing, indicating that the disease may be emerging as a wider public health problem in the region: 38 cases from 1969 to 1992, and 167 in the past eight years. This article reviews the status of Chagas disease in Amazonian Brazil, including known reservoirs and vectors, and the genetic diversity of T. cruzi. At least three subspecific groups of T. cruzi-T. cruzilZ1, T. cruziZ3 and T. cruziZ3/Z1 ASAT--are present. It appears that T. cruzil has an extant capacity for genetic exchange. Attention is also drawn to the risk of domestic endemicity, in addition to the tasks facing the disease control authorities.Trends in Parasitology 05/2002; 18(4):171-6. · 5.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes invade and replicate in the gastric mucosal epithelium after oral infection. In this study we analyzed the process of infection by T. cruzi isolates deficient in the expression of gp82, the metacyclic stage-specific surface glycoprotein implicated in target cell entry in vitro and in promoting mucosal infection in mice after oral challenge. Mice infected by the oral route with metacyclic forms of gp82-deficient isolate 569 or 588 developed patent parasitemia but at greatly reduced levels compared to those infected with the gp82-expressing isolate CL. Metacyclic forms of both isolates expressed gp30, a surface glycoprotein detectable by monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3F6 directed to gp82. Otherwise, the gp82-deficient isolates displayed a surface profile similar to that of the CL isolate and also entered epithelial HeLa cells in a manner inhibitable by MAb 3F6 and dependent on the parasite signal transduction that involved the activation of protein tyrosine kinase and Ca(2+) mobilization from thapsigargin-sensitive stores. Like gp82, gp30 triggered the host cell Ca(2+) response required for parasite internalization. Purified gp30 and the recombinant gp82 inhibited HeLa cell invasion of metacyclic forms of isolates 569 and 588 by approximately 90 and approximately 70%, respectively. A cell invasion assay performed in the presence of gastric mucin, mimicking the in vivo infection, showed an inhibition of 70 to 75% in the internalization of gp82-deficient isolates but not of the CL isolate. The recombinant gp82 exhibited an adhesive capacity toward gastric mucin much higher than that of gp30. Taken together, our findings indicate that target cell entry of metacyclic trypomastigotes can be mediated either by gp82 or gp30 but that efficient mucosal infection depends on the expression of gp82.Infection and Immunity 12/2003; 71(11):6184-91. · 4.07 Impact Factor