Trypanosoma cruzi surface molecule gp90 downregulates invasion of gastric mucosal epithelium in orally infected mice.
ABSTRACT Experiments were performed to elucidate why Trypanosoma cruzi isolates 573 and 587 differ widely in their efficiency to infect gastric mucosal epithelium when administered orally to mice. These isolates have the same surface profile and a similar capacity to enter host cells in vitro. Metacyclic forms of isolates 573 and 587 and the control CL isolate expressed similar levels of gp82, which is a cell invasion-promoting molecule. Expression of gp90, a molecule that downregulates cell invasion, was lower in the CL isolate. Consistent with this profile, approximately threefold fewer parasites of isolates 573 and 587 entered epithelial HeLa cells, as compared to the CL isolate. No difference in the rate of intracellular parasite replication was observed between isolates. When given orally to mice, metacyclic forms of isolate 573, like the CL isolate, produced high parasitemia (>10(6) parasites per ml at the peak), killing approximately 40% of animals, whereas infection with isolate 587 resulted in low parasitemia (<10(5) parasites per ml), with zero mortality. On the fourth day post-inoculation, tissue sections of the mouse stomach stained with hematoxylin and eosin showed a four to sixfold higher number of epithelial cells infected with isolate 573 or CL than with isolate 587. The rate of intracellular parasite development was similar in all isolates. Mimicking in vivo infection, parasites were treated with pepsin at acidic pH and then assayed for their ability to enter HeLa cells or explanted gastric epithelial cells. Pepsin extensively digested gp90 from isolate 573 and significantly increased invasion of both cells, but had minor effect on gp90 or infectivity of isolates 587 and CL. The profile of g82 digestion was similar in isolates 573 and 587, with partial degradation to a approximately 70 kDa fragment, which preserved the target cell binding domain as well as the region involved in gastric mucin adhesion. Gp82 from CL isolate was resistant to pepsin. Assays with parasites recovered from the mouse stomach 2 h after oral infection showed an extensive digestion of gp90 and increased infectivity of isolate 573, but not of isolate 587 or CL. Our data indicate that T. cruzi infection in vitro does not always correlate with in vivo infection because host factors may act on parasites, modulating their infectivity, as is the case of pepsin digestion of isolate 573 gp90.
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ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are major immune components, and depending on how these cells are modulated, the protective host immune response changes drastically. Trypanosoma cruzi is a parasite with high genetic variability and modulates DCs by interfering with their capacity for antigen recognition, migration, and maturation. Despite recent efforts, the association between DCs and T. cruzi I (TcI) and TcII populations is unknown. Herein, it was demonstrated that AQ1.7 and MUTUM TcI strains present low rates of invasion of bone marrow-derived DCs, whereas the 1849 and 2369 TcII strains present higher rates. Whereas the four strains similarly induced the expression of PD-L1, the production and expression of IL-10 and TLR-2, respectively, in DCs were differentially increased. The production of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and CCL2 and the expression of CD40, CD80, MHC-II, CCR5, and CCR7 changed depending on the strain. The 2369 strain yielded the most remarkable results because greater invasion correlated with an increase in the levels of anti-inflammatory molecules IL-10 and PD-L1 but not with a change in the levels of TNF-α, MHC-II, or CD40 molecules. These results suggest that T. cruzi strains belonging to different populations have evolved specific evasion strategies that subvert DCs and consequently the host response.Research Journal of Immunology 01/2014; 2014:12.
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ABSTRACT: Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) dionisii is a non-pathogenic bat trypanosome closely related to Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chaga's disease. Both kinetoplastids present similar morphological stages and are able to infect mammalian cells in culture. In the present study we examined 3D ultrastructure aspects of the two species by serial sectioning epimastigote and trypomastigote forms, and identified common carbohydrate epitopes expressed in T. dionisii, T. cruzi and L. major.A major difference in 3D morphology was that T. dionisii epimastigote forms present larger multivesicular structures, restricted to the parasite posterior region. These structures could be related to T. cruzi reservosomes and are also rich in cruzipain, the major cysteine-proteinase of T. cruzi.We analyzed the reactivity of two monoclonal antibodies: MEST-1 directed to galactofuranose residues of glycolipids purified from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and BST-1 directed to glycolipids purified from T. cruzi epimastigotes. Both antibodies were reactive with T. dionisii epimastigotes by indirect immunofluorescense, but we noted differences in the location and intensity of the epitopes, when compared to T. cruzi. In summary, despite similar features in cellular structure and life cycle of T. dionisii and T. cruzi, we observed a unique morphological characteristic in T. dionisii that deserves to be explored.Acta tropica 08/2013; · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The debilitating zoonosis Chagas disease (CD) is caused by infection with the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. One century after its discovery, a curative agent remains elusive. Immune evasion by T. cruzi results in a poorly controlled infection in the host, which can end in either sudden death or a fatal chronic disease that often eventuates after years of an asymptomatic infection. Polyparasitism or mixed/concurrent infections occur more often than not and contribute to the high degree of variability observed across both disease progression and the success of therapeutic interventions. A thorough understanding of the effects of polyparasitism on CD is essential for improving the likelihood of containing, treating, and eventually eliminating CD.Trends in Parasitology 02/2014; · 5.51 Impact Factor