Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese Version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI) in Primary Insomnia and Control Subjects

College of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan.
Quality of Life Research (Impact Factor: 2.86). 11/2005; 14(8):1943-52. DOI: 10.1007/s11136-005-4346-x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In order to effectively study the population experiencing insomnia, it is important to identify reliable and valid tools to measure sleep that can be administered in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to assess psychometric properties for the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI) in community-dwelling adults with primary insomnia. The CPSQI had an overall reliability coefficient of 0.82 -0.83 for all subjects. "Subjective sleep quality" was the component most highly correlated with the global score. Overall, the CPSQI showed acceptable test-retest reliability over a 14- to 21-day interval with a coefficient of 0.85 for all subjects and 0.77 for primary insomniacs. The two contrasting groups had significantly different global and component scores. A CPSQI of greater than 5 yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 98 and 55% in primary insomniacs vs. controls. A CPSQI of greater than 6 resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 90 and 67%. Results suggest that the CPSQI is a psychometrically sound measure of sleep quality and disturbance for patients with primary insomnia. It may not be an effective screening tool because of its low specificity, but it can be a sensitive, reliable, and valid outcome assessment tool for use in community-based studies of primary insomnia.

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    • "A multi-dimensional measure of sleep difficulty was administered using a Chinese validated version (Tsai et al. 2005) of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index along with the original English version (Buysse et al. 1989). This instrument includes 19 items relating to the past 2 weeks and spanning seven dimensions involving: sleep quality, hours of sleep, length of sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, medication use and daytime dysfunction. "
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    ABSTRACT: Problem gambling and sleep difficulty threaten health. Using the basis of self-regulatory theory, potential mechanisms for these problems were investigated. Fifty-nine treatment-seeking gamblers completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (sleep difficulty), the Sleep Hygiene Index (negative sleep habits), the Problem Gambling Severity Index and measures of self-regulatory capacity and arousability with data entered into regression analyses. Results supported the relationship between problem gambling and greater sleep difficulty (β = .18, t = 3.22, p < .01). Self-regulatory capacity mediated the relationship between problem gambling and sleep difficulty (R 2 change = .15, F(2, 57) = 12.14, β = −.45, t = −3.45, p < .001) as well as between problem gambling and negative sleep habits; R 2 change = .17, F(2, 57) = 13.57, β = −.28, t = −3.76, p < .001. Arousability predicted sleep difficulty (β = .15, t = 3.07, p < .01) and negative sleep habits (β = .40, t = 5.40, p < .01) but showed no relationship with problem gambling (r = .09, ns). Self-regulatory capacity represents an important mediator of the relationship between problem gambling and sleep-related behaviour and if targeted could reduce behavioural threats to health.
    Journal of Gambling Studies 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10899-014-9514-x · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    • "The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess an individual's sleep quality over the past month (Buysse et al., 1989; Tsai et al., 2005). The PSQI measures multiple domains of sleep quality, including subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleep medication , and daytime dysfunction. "
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    Chronobiology International 06/2013; 30(7). DOI:10.3109/07420528.2013.789895 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Sleep duration, weekday/weekend sleep discrepancy and various dimensions of sleep quality are included as predictors in the SEM model. The Sleep Timing Questionnaire (STQ) [15] and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) [16] were used to examine an individual's sleep duration and weekday/weekend sleep discrepancy , and sleep quality respectively. In lieu of a sleep diary, the STQ consisted of 14 items in assessing an individual's habitual sleep–wake patterns in a recent normal week (when the participant is not sick or on vacation). "
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    ABSTRACT: Existing studies on sleep and behavioral outcomes are mostly correlational. Longitudinal data is limited. The current longitudinal study assessed how sleep duration and sleep quality may be causally linked to daytime functions, including physical health (physical well-being and daytime sleepiness), psychological health (mood and self-esteem) and academic functioning (school grades and study effort). The mediation role of mood in the relationship between sleep quality, sleep duration and these daytime functions is also assessed. A sample of 930 Chinese students (aged 18-25) from Hong Kong/Macau completed self-reported questionnaires online across three academic semesters. Sleep behaviors are assessed by the Sleep Timing Questionnaire (for sleep duration and weekday/weekend sleep discrepancy) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (sleep quality); physical health by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Brief Version (physical well-being) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (daytime sleepiness); psychological health by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (mood) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (self-esteem) and academic functioning by grade-point-average and the College Student Expectation Questionnaire (study effort). Structural equation modeling with a bootstrap resample of 5000 showed that after controlling for demographics and participants' daytime functions at baseline, academic functions, physical and psychological health were predicted by the duration and quality of sleep. While some sleep behaviors directly predicted daytime functions, others had an indirect effect on daytime functions through negative mood, such as anxiety. Sleep duration and quality have direct and indirect (via mood) effects on college students' academic function, physical and psychological health. Our findings underscore the importance of healthy sleep patterns for better adjustment in college years.
    Journal of psychosomatic research 04/2013; 74(4):271-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.08.014 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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