Article

Increased intramuscular lipid storage in the insulin-resistant and endurance-trained state.

Department of Movement Sciences, Nutrition Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, 616, 6200, Maastricht, MD, The Netherlands,
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.07). 03/2006; 451(5):606-16. DOI: 10.1007/s00424-005-1509-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Numerous studies have reported a strong correlation between intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) content and insulin resistance. However, the proposed relationship between IMTG accumulation and skeletal muscle insulin resistance is not unambiguous, as trained athletes have been shown to be markedly insulin sensitive despite an elevated IMTG storage. Though the latter has often been attributed to differences in muscle fibre type composition and/or structural characteristics of the intramyocellular lipid deposits, recent studies have failed to provide such evidence. The greater insulin sensitivity despite an elevated IMTG deposition in the endurance-trained state has often been described as a metabolic paradox. However, divergent metabolic events are responsible for the greater IMTG content in the endurance-trained versus insulin-resistant states. The greater IMTG storage in the trained athlete represents an adaptive response to endurance training, allowing a greater contribution of the IMTG pool as a substrate source during exercise. In contrast, elevated IMTG stores in the obese and/or type 2 diabetes patient seem to be secondary to a structural imbalance between plasma free fatty acid availability, fatty acid (FA) storage and oxidation. Therefore, the reported correlation between IMTG content and insulin resistance does not represent a functional relationship, as it is strongly influenced by training status and/or habitual physical activity. It can be argued that the ratio between IMTG content and muscle oxidative capacity represents a more accurate marker of insulin resistance. Interventions to augment mitochondrial density and/or function are likely to improve the balance between FA uptake and oxidation and should be applied to prevent and/or treat insulin resistance.

0 Followers
 · 
121 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A common feature of ageing is the alteration in tissue distribution and composition, with a shift in fat away from lower body and subcutaneous depots to visceral and ectopic sites. Redistribution of adipose tissue towards an ectopic site can have dramatic effects on metabolic function. In skeletal muscle, increased ectopic adiposity is linked to insulin resistance through lipid mediators such as ceramide or DAG, inhibiting the insulin receptor signalling pathway. Additionally, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease is increased with elevated visceral adipose distribution. In ageing, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, with the pathway of differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes becoming impaired; this results in dysfunctional adipocytes less able to store fat and subsequent fat redistribution to ectopic sites. Low grade systemic inflammation is commonly observed in ageing, and may drive the adipose tissue dysfunction, as proinflammatory cytokines are capable of inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. Beyond increased ectopic adiposity, the effect of impaired adipose tissue function is an elevation in systemic free fatty acids (FFA), a common feature of many metabolic disorders. Saturated fatty acids can be regarded as the most detrimental of FFA, being capable of inducing insulin resistance and inflammation through lipid mediators such as ceramide, which can increase risk of developing atherosclerosis. Elevated FFA, in particular saturated fatty acids, maybe a driving factor for both the increased insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation in older adults.
    Biogerontology 11/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.1007/s10522-014-9536-x · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pattern of fat distribution is a major determinant for metabolic homeostasis. As a depot of energy, the storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue contributes to the normal fat distribution. Decreased capacity of fat storage in adipose tissue may result in ectopic fat deposition in nonadipose tissues such as liver, pancreas, and kidney. As a critical biomarker of metabolic complications, chronic low-grade inflammation may have the ability to affect the process of lipid accumulation and further lead to the disorder of fat distribution. In this review, we have collected the evidence linking inflammation with ectopic fat deposition to get a better understanding of the underlying mechanism, which may provide us with novel therapeutic strategies for metabolic disorders.
    Mediators of Inflammation 07/2014; 2014:418185. DOI:10.1155/2014/418185 · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • Source