Selectively desulfated heparin inhibits P-selectin-mediated adhesion of human melanoma cells.
ABSTRACT Accumulating evidence has suggested that one of the mechanisms by which heparin inhibits metastasis is by blocking the P-selectin-based interaction of platelets with tumor cells. Here we demonstrate that the sulfate groups at C6/N and especially C6, but not C2 and C3, of heparin play a critical role in P-selectin recognition and that 2-O,3-O-desulfated heparin can block P-selectin-mediated A375 human melanoma cell adhesion. Our findings show that chemical modification of heparin, especially 2-O,3-O-desulfation, may result in a therapeutic agent that is anti-metastatic because it blocks unwanted P-selectin-dependent adhesion but that lacks dose-limiting anticoagulant effects.
- SourceAvailable from: Gerard B Nash[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interaction between neutrophils and platelets at the site of vascular damage or in ischaemic tissue may promote thrombosis and/or vascular occlusion. To study this interaction, we have developed a novel technique that allows visualization of adhesion of flowing neutrophils to immobilized, activated platelets. The total number of adherent neutrophils decreased with increasing wall shear stress in the range 0.05 to 0.4 Pa. Although a proportion of the adherent neutrophils were stationary, most were rolling with a velocity greater than 0.4 micron/s. The percentage of rolling cells increased with increasing wall shear stress, but the mean rolling cell velocity was nearly independent of shear stress. Adhesion of neutrophils was nearly abolished by treatment of the platelets with antibody to P-selectin, or by treatment of neutrophils with either neuraminidase, dextran sulfate, or EDTA. Studies with a series of antibodies to L-selectin (TQ-1, Dreg-56, LAM1-3, and LAM1-10) suggested that this molecule was one neutrophil ligand for rolling adhesion. Thus, sialylated carbohydrate on neutrophils appears essential for P-selectin-mediated adhesion, and a proportion of this ligand may be presented by L-selectin. Treatment of the neutrophils with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine decreased the number of rolling cells, and increased the rolling velocity, possibly due to shedding of neutrophil ligand(s) and/or cell shape change. In vivo, immobilized platelets could play an important role in promoting attachment of neutrophils to vessel walls, eg, by slowing neutrophils so that integrin-mediated immobilization could occur.Blood 09/1993; 82(4):1165-74. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heparin's (HP's) antiproliferative effect on smooth muscle cells is potentially important in defining new approaches to treat pulmonary hypertension. The commercially available HP and heparan sulfate (HS) are structurally heterogenous polymers. In order to examine which sulfonate groups are required for endogenous antiproliferative activity, we prepared the following six chemically modified porcine mucosal HP and HS, which fell into three groups. One group consisted of fully O-sulfonated-N-acetylated, the second group consisted of de-N-sulfonated and re-N-acetylated, and the third group consisted of 6-O-desulfonated HP and HS derivatives. These six preparations were assayed for their antiproliferative potency on bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. The results of this assay show that (a) over-O-sulfonation of both HP and HS increases antiproliferative activity, (b) substitution of hexosamine with N-acetyl diminishes antiproliferative activity in both HP and HS, and (c) 6-O-desulfonation of HP and HS diminishes antiproliferative potency. Surprisingly, the type of uronic acid residue present at a given level of sulfation is unimportant for antiproliferative potency. In conclusion, only the level of O- and N-sulfo group substitution correlates well with HP and HS antiproliferative activity.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/2003; 1639(3):225-31. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heparin has been used clinically as an anticoagulant and antithrombotic agent for over 60 years. Here we show that the potent anti-inflammatory property of heparin results primarily from blockade of P-selectin and L-selectin. Unfractionated heparin and chemically modified analogs were tested as inhibitors of selectin binding to immobilized sialyl Lewis(X) and of cell adhesion to immobilized selectins or thrombin-activated endothelial cells. Compared with unfractionated heparin, the modified heparinoids had inhibitory activity in this general order: over-O-sulfated heparin > heparin > 2-O,3-O-desulfated > or = N-desulfated/N-acetylated heparin > or = carboxyl-reduced heparin > or= N-,2-O,3-O-desulfated heparin > 6-O-desulfated heparin. The heparinoids also showed similar differences in their ability to inhibit thioglycollate-induced peritonitis and oxazolone-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity. Mice deficient in P- or L-selectins showed impaired inflammation, which could be further reduced by heparin. However, heparin had no additional effect in mice deficient in both P- and L-selectins. We conclude that (a) heparin's anti-inflammatory effects are mainly mediated by blocking P- and L-selectin-initiated cell adhesion; (b) the sulfate groups at C6 on the glucosamine residues play a critical role in selectin inhibition; and (c) some non-anticoagulant forms of heparin retain anti-inflammatory activity. Such analogs may prove useful as therapeutically effective inhibitors of inflammation.Journal of Clinical Investigation 07/2002; 110(1):127-36. · 12.81 Impact Factor