Progesterone modulation of inflammatory cytokine production in a fetoplacental artery explant model
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine if progesterone has an effect on fetoplacental artery production of inflammatory cytokines.
Chorionic plate arteries were dissected from 5 placentas obtained from normal pregnancies after delivery at term. Arteries were incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) alone, DMEM and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), DMEM with progesterone (P4), and DMEM with P4 and LPS. Samples of the tissue culture media were collected and evaluated for interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) by immunoassay.
There was a significant decrease in the production of IL-6 in P4-exposed fetoplacental arteries after LPS stimulation (P < .001). IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels were similar in control and treatment groups after LPS exposure.
Pretreating fetoplacental arteries with P4 significantly decreased the production of IL-6 after LPS stimulation without altering the production of TNF-alpha or IL-10.
- Urology 09/2011; 78(3). DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2011.07.562 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Preterm birth continues to provide an enormous challenge in the delivery of perinatal health care, and is associated with considerable short and long-term health consequences for surviving infants. Progesterone has a role in maintaining pregnancy, by suppression of the calcium-calmodulin-myosin light chain kinase system. Additionally, progesterone has recognized anti-inflammatory properties, raising a possible link between inflammatory processes, alterations in progesterone receptor expression and the onset of preterm labor. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of intramuscular and vaginal progesterone in women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth have been published, with primary outcomes of perinatal death, preterm birth <34 weeks, and neurodevelopmental handicap in childhood. Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic review, involving 2714 women and 3452 infants, with results presented according to the reason women were considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth. While there is a potential beneficial effect in the use of progesterone for some women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth, primarily in the reduction in the risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks gestation, it remains unclear if the observed prolongation of pregnancy translates into improved health outcomes for the infant.International Journal of Women's Health 08/2010; 1:73-84. DOI:10.2147/IJWH.S4730
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ABSTRACT: Preterm birth is defined as birth before 37 weeks' gestational age. With an incidence of 7% to 11%, it is one of the major causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Preterm birth is considered a clinical syndrome, which arises from different pathological processes that activate prematurely one or more components of the mechanisms leading to parturition. The premature activation of labor may be caused by multiple pathological conditions; in particular a deregulation of the immune system and an exaggeration of inflammatory processes represent common central mechanisms. The complex pathogenesis, the main risk factors and the different therapeutic options will be described in the present review. Since its incidence is still increasing in the last decades, the goal is to improve the primary and secondary prevention.Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) 03/2013; 20(11). DOI:10.1177/1933719113477496 · 2.18 Impact Factor