Article

Effects of Endurance Training on Blood Pressure, Blood Pressure-Regulating Mechanisms, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Department of Molecular and Cardiovascular Research, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 7.63). 11/2005; 46(4):667-75. DOI: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000184225.05629.51
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on the effects of chronic dynamic aerobic endurance training on blood pressure reported on resting blood pressure only. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis including resting and ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. Inclusion criteria of studies were: random allocation to intervention and control; endurance training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of > or =4 weeks; availability of systolic or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. The meta-analysis involved 72 trials, 105 study groups, and 3936 participants. After weighting for the number of trained participants and using a random-effects model, training induced significant net reductions of resting and daytime ambulatory blood pressure of, respectively, 3.0/2.4 mm Hg (P<0.001) and 3.3/3.5 mm Hg (P<0.01). The reduction of resting blood pressure was more pronounced in the 30 hypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; P<0.001 for all). Systemic vascular resistance decreased by 7.1% (P<0.05), plasma norepinephrine by 29% (P<0.001), and plasma renin activity by 20% (P<0.05). Body weight decreased by 1.2 kg (P<0.001), waist circumference by 2.8 cm (P<0.001), percent body fat by 1.4% (P<0.001), and the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance by 0.31 U (P<0.01); HDL cholesterol increased by 0.032 mmol/L(-1) (P<0.05). In conclusion, aerobic endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favorably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors.

4 Followers
 · 
327 Views
  • Source
    • "This effect is likely related to the intense 10-s bursts performed during the 10-20-30 training . The mechanisms underlying this novel finding is not clear, but is likely to involve modulation in the activity of the autonomic nervous system and neurohumoral adaptations as well as a reduction in systemic vascular resistance (Cornelissen & Fagard, 2005; Pedersen & Saltin, 2006). Specifically, improvements in the nitric oxide and prostaglandin systems have been related to reduction of blood pressure in subjects with essential hypertension after a period of high-intensity bike ergometer training (Hellsten et al., 2012; Nyberg et al., 2012) and is likely also involved in the blood pressure reduction observed in present study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup of runners (n = 18). 10-20-30 improved 5-K time (38 s) and lowered systolic BP (2 ± 1 mmHg). For hypertensive sub-jects in 10-20-30 (n = 30), systolic and diastolic BP was lowered by 5 ± 4 and 3 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, which was a greater reduction than in the non-hypertensive subjects (n = 102). 10-20-30 increased VO 2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily implemented training intervention improving endurance performance, VO2max and lowering BP in rec-reational runners, but does not affect muscle morphology and reduces muscle VEGF.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 12/2014; DOI:10.1111/sms.12356 · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Référence Nombre d'études/groupes Nombre de sujets Classe d'HTA Type d'exercice Variation moyenne de PAS Variation moyenne de PAD Cornelissen et al., 2005 [35] 15/28 599 NT Aérobie –2,4 (–4,2 ; –0,6) –1,6 (–2,4 ; –0,7) 33/46 1087 préHT Aérobie –1,7 (–3,1 ; –0,3) –1,7 (–2,6 ; –0,8) 28/31 492 HT Aérobie –6,9 (–9,1 ; –4,6) –4,9 (–6,5 ; –3,3) Cornelissen et al., 2005 [36] 9/12 290 NT, HT Résistance –3,2 (–7,1 ; 0,7) –3,5 (–6,1 ; –0,9) Dickinson et al., 2006 [37] 20/– 1270 HT – –4,6 (–7,1 ; –2,0) –2,4 (–4,0 ; –0,7) Cornelissen et al., 2013 [38] 59/105 – NT, HT Aérobie –3,5 (–4,6 ; –2,3) –2,5 (–3,2 ; –1,7) 13/29 – NT, HT Résistance –1,8 (–3,7 ; –0,0) –3,2 (–4,5 ; –2,0) –/29 – NT Aérobie –0,8 (–2,2 ; 0,7) –1,1 (–2,2 ; –0,1) –/50 – préHT Aérobie –2,1 (–3,3 ; –0,8) –1,7 (–2,7 ; –0,7) –/26 – HT Aérobie –8,3 (–10,7 ; –6,0) –5,2 (–6,8 ; –3,4) Cornelissen et al., 2013 [39] 15/17 718 NT, HT Aérobie –3,2 (–5,0 ; –1,3) Ambulatoire diurne –2,8 (–3,9 ; –1,5) Ambulatoire diurne "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change.
    Annales de cardiologie et d'angeiologie 06/2014; · 0.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Référence Nombre d'études/groupes Nombre de sujets Classe d'HTA Type d'exercice Variation moyenne de PAS Variation moyenne de PAD Cornelissen et al., 2005 [35] 15/28 599 NT Aérobie –2,4 (–4,2 ; –0,6) –1,6 (–2,4 ; –0,7) 33/46 1087 préHT Aérobie –1,7 (–3,1 ; –0,3) –1,7 (–2,6 ; –0,8) 28/31 492 HT Aérobie –6,9 (–9,1 ; –4,6) –4,9 (–6,5 ; –3,3) Cornelissen et al., 2005 [36] 9/12 290 NT, HT Résistance –3,2 (–7,1 ; 0,7) –3,5 (–6,1 ; –0,9) Dickinson et al., 2006 [37] 20/– 1270 HT – –4,6 (–7,1 ; –2,0) –2,4 (–4,0 ; –0,7) Cornelissen et al., 2013 [38] 59/105 – NT, HT Aérobie –3,5 (–4,6 ; –2,3) –2,5 (–3,2 ; –1,7) 13/29 – NT, HT Résistance –1,8 (–3,7 ; –0,0) –3,2 (–4,5 ; –2,0) –/29 – NT Aérobie –0,8 (–2,2 ; 0,7) –1,1 (–2,2 ; –0,1) –/50 – préHT Aérobie –2,1 (–3,3 ; –0,8) –1,7 (–2,7 ; –0,7) –/26 – HT Aérobie –8,3 (–10,7 ; –6,0) –5,2 (–6,8 ; –3,4) Cornelissen et al., 2013 [39] 15/17 718 NT, HT Aérobie –3,2 (–5,0 ; –1,3) Ambulatoire diurne –2,8 (–3,9 ; –1,5) Ambulatoire diurne "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change.
    Annales de cardiologie et d'angeiologie 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ancard.2014.05.003 · 0.30 Impact Factor
Show more

Preview

Download
9 Downloads
Available from