Effects of Endurance Training on Blood Pressure, Blood Pressure-Regulating Mechanisms, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Department of Molecular and Cardiovascular Research, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 6.48). 11/2005; 46(4):667-75. DOI: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000184225.05629.51
Source: PubMed


Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on the effects of chronic dynamic aerobic endurance training on blood pressure reported on resting blood pressure only. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis including resting and ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. Inclusion criteria of studies were: random allocation to intervention and control; endurance training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of > or =4 weeks; availability of systolic or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. The meta-analysis involved 72 trials, 105 study groups, and 3936 participants. After weighting for the number of trained participants and using a random-effects model, training induced significant net reductions of resting and daytime ambulatory blood pressure of, respectively, 3.0/2.4 mm Hg (P<0.001) and 3.3/3.5 mm Hg (P<0.01). The reduction of resting blood pressure was more pronounced in the 30 hypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; P<0.001 for all). Systemic vascular resistance decreased by 7.1% (P<0.05), plasma norepinephrine by 29% (P<0.001), and plasma renin activity by 20% (P<0.05). Body weight decreased by 1.2 kg (P<0.001), waist circumference by 2.8 cm (P<0.001), percent body fat by 1.4% (P<0.001), and the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance by 0.31 U (P<0.01); HDL cholesterol increased by 0.032 mmol/L(-1) (P<0.05). In conclusion, aerobic endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favorably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors.

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    • "Protein levels of VEGF and its receptor were determined as VEGF is thought to be an essential promoter of angiogenesis, while TSP-1 and TIMP-1 were analysed because of their important angio-inhibiting role (Egginton 2009, Olfert & Birot 2011). Exercise training lowers blood pressure in hypertensive subjects (Rogers et al. 1996, Fagard & Cornelissen 2007), and regular physical activity is therefore recommended in the prevention and treatment of hypertension (Cornelissen & Fagard 2005, Perk et al. 2012). Observations from hypertensive animals (Melo et al. 2003) and humans (Peterson et al. 1980, Hansen et al. 2010) suggest that exercise training may normalize capillary density. "

    Acta Physiologica 03/2015; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    • "This effect is likely related to the intense 10-s bursts performed during the 10-20-30 training . The mechanisms underlying this novel finding is not clear, but is likely to involve modulation in the activity of the autonomic nervous system and neurohumoral adaptations as well as a reduction in systemic vascular resistance (Cornelissen & Fagard, 2005; Pedersen & Saltin, 2006). Specifically, improvements in the nitric oxide and prostaglandin systems have been related to reduction of blood pressure in subjects with essential hypertension after a period of high-intensity bike ergometer training (Hellsten et al., 2012; Nyberg et al., 2012) and is likely also involved in the blood pressure reduction observed in present study. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup of runners (n = 18). 10-20-30 improved 5-K time (38 s) and lowered systolic BP (2 ± 1 mmHg). For hypertensive sub-jects in 10-20-30 (n = 30), systolic and diastolic BP was lowered by 5 ± 4 and 3 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, which was a greater reduction than in the non-hypertensive subjects (n = 102). 10-20-30 increased VO 2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily implemented training intervention improving endurance performance, VO2max and lowering BP in rec-reational runners, but does not affect muscle morphology and reduces muscle VEGF.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 12/2014; DOI:10.1111/sms.12356 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "Changes in BMI and body fat percentage often result in alterations of the lipoprotein profiles [30]. Previous studies in adults have shown favorable alterations in blood lipid and lipoprotein profiles following a controlled exercise intervention [31,32]. For example, Holme et al.[33] suggested that exercise training may directly reduce the atherogenicity of lipoproteins via decreasing both apoB and the apoB/apoA-I ratio. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Major cardiovascular disorders are being recognized earlier in life. In this study we examined the effects of swimming and soccer training on male adolescent lipid-lipoprotein profiles relative to a maturity matched control group to determine the effects of these exercises on specific cardiovascular risk and anti-risk factors. Methods Forty five adolescent males (11.81 ± 1.38 yr) including swimmers (SW), soccer players (SO), and non-athlete, physically active individuals as controls (C), participated in this study. Training groups completed 12-wk exercise programs on three non-consecutive days per week. Plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apolipoprotein B (apoB), total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured in control, pre-training, during-training, and post-training. Results In response to the 12-wk training period, the SO group demonstrated a decrease in the mean LDL level compared to the SW and C (SW: 0.15%; SO: −9.51%; C: 19.59%; p < 0.001) groups. There was an increase in both the SW and SO groups vs. the control in mean HDL (SW: 5.66%; SO: 3.07%; C: −7.21%; p < 0.05) and apoA-I (SW: 3.86%; SO: 5.48%; C: −1.01%; p < 0.05). ApoB was considerably lower in the training groups vs. control (SW: −9.52%; SO: −13.87%; C: 21.09%; p < 0.05). ApoA-I/apoB ratio was significantly higher in training groups vs. control (SW: 16.74%; SO: 23.71%; C: −17.35%; p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between groups for other factors. Conclusions The favorable alterations in LDL, HDL, apoA-I, and apoB observed in the training groups suggest that both regular swimming or soccer exercise can potentially mitigate cardiovascular risk in adolescent males.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 06/2014; 13(1):95. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-13-95 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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