Organization of the main olfactory bulb of lesser hedgehog tenrecs
ABSTRACT Using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and an electron microscope, we investigated the organization of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of tenrecs, which were previously included into insectivores but now considered to be in a new order "Afrosoricida" in the superclade 'Afrotheria'. We confirmed that the overall structural organization of the tenrec MOB was similar to that of rodents: (1) the compartmental organization of glomeruli and two types of periglomerular cells we proposed as the common organizational principles were present; (2) there were characteristic dendrodendritic and axo-dendritic synapses in the glomerulus and external plexiform layer (EPL) and gap junctions in glomeruli; and (3) no nidi, particular synaptic regions reported only in laboratory musk shrew and mole MOBs, were encountered. However, instead of nidi, we often observed a few tangled olfactory nerves (ONs) with large irregular boutons in the glomerular-external plexiform layer border zone, with which dendrites of various displaced periglomerular cells were usually found to be intermingled. Electron microscopic (EM) examinations confirmed characteristic large mossy terminal-like ON terminals making asymmetrical synapses to presumed mitral/tufted cell and displaced periglomerular cell dendrites. In addition, gap junctions were also encountered between dendritic processes in these tiny particular regions, further showing their resemblance to glomeruli.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Because it is the most important sensory system in nocturnal mammals, the olfactory system has been well studied in mammals such as mice and rats. However, few studies have focused on characterizing this system in diurnal primates that rely on their sense of smell to a lesser extent due to their ecological environment. In the present study, we determined the histological organization of the olfactory bulb in the common marmoset (Callithrix jaccus). We then constructed 3-dimensional models of the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb, and estimated the number of glomeruli. Olfactory glomeruli are the functional units of olfactory processing, and have been investigated in detail using mice. There are approximately 1,800 glomeruli in a mouse hemibulb, and olfactory sensory neurons expressing one selected olfactory receptor converge onto one or two glomeruli. Because mice have about 1,000 olfactory receptor genes, it is proposed that the number of glomeruli in mammals is nearly double that of olfactory receptor genes. In primates, many haplorhines have a small set of olfactory receptor genes and involutional olfactory bulbs due to a reduced reliance on chemical sensing. The common marmoset also carries only about 400 intact olfactory receptor genes. The present study revealed that the number of glomeruli in a marmoset hemibulb was approximately 1,500 to 1,800. This result suggests that the number of glomeruli is not positively correlated with the number of intact olfactory receptor genes in mammals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Neuroscience Research 01/2015; 93. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2014.12.007 · 2.15 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The vomeronasal system (VNS) mediates pheromonal communication in mammals. From the vomeronasal organ, two populations of sensory neurons, expressing either Galphai2 or Galphao proteins, send projections that end in glomeruli distributed either at the rostral or caudal half of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively. Neurons at the AOB contact glomeruli of a single subpopulation. The dichotomic segregation of AOB glomeruli has been described in opossums, rodents and rabbits, while Primates and Laurasiatheres present the Galphai2-pathway only, or none at all (such as apes, some bats and aquatic species). We studied the AOB of the Madagascan lesser tenrec Echinops telfairi (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida) and found that Galphai2 and Galphao proteins are expressed in rostral and caudal glomeruli, respectively. However, the segregation of vomeronasal glomeruli at the AOB is not exclusive, as both pathways contained some glomeruli transposed into the adjoining subdomain. Moreover, some glomeruli seem to contain intermingled afferences from both pathways. Both the transposition and heterogeneity of vomeronasal afferences are features, to our knowledge, never reported before. The organization of AOB glomeruli suggests that synaptic integration might occur at the glomerular layer. Whether intrinsic AOB neurons may make synaptic contact with axon terminals of both subpopulations is an interesting possibility that would expand our understanding about the integration of vomeronasal pathways.PLoS ONE 11/2009; 4(11):e8005. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0008005 · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We analyzed the cellular composition of the juxtaglomerular region in the main olfactory bulb of C57B/6J strain mice, focusing on 1) the compartmental organization of the glomerulus and the presence of type 1 and 2 periglomerular cells, 2) the colocalization relationships among the 4 major chemically identified groups of periglomerular cells, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)/gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), tyrosine hydroxylase, calretinin and calbindin D28k positive periglomerular cells, and 3) the chemical properties of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-positive juxtaglomerular cells. We confirmed the compartmental organization of the glomerulus and the presence of both type 1 and 2 periglomerular cells in the mice. Similar to rat periglomerular cells, the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells were type 1 and GAD/GABA-positive. On the other hand, both the calbindin D28k-positive and calretinin-positive cells were type 2 periglomerular cells, but in contrast to those in rats, which are GAD/GABA-negative, all of the calbindin D28k-positive periglomerular cells and 65% of the calretinin-positive periglomerular cells were GAD/GABA-positive. The GAD/GABA-positive cells thus included both type 1 and type 2 periglomerular cells. Juxtaglomerular NOS-positive cells have been proposed as a subgroup of type 1 periglomerular cells that are separate from the calretinin-positive and calbindin D28k-positive cells in rats. However, in the mice, about 70% of the NOS-positive cells were calretinin-positive, and 50% of the calretinin-positive cells were NOS-positive. We herein reveal the significant species differences in the chemical properties of periglomerular cells and suggest that the cellular organization of the mouse main olfactory bulb cannot be extrapolated from that of rats.Brain Research 10/2007; 1167:42-55. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2007.04.087 · 2.83 Impact Factor