Effects of palatability and learned satiety on energy density influences on breakfast intake in humans
ABSTRACT The present report explored firstly how palatability modified the effects of energy density (ED) on short-term food intake and changes in rated appetite within a single test meal, and secondly how repeated consumption altered these relationships. Experiment 1 contrasted disguised high (HED) and low (LED) versions of a food presented in bland and palatable forms. Mass consumed varied as an interaction of palatability and ED, with subjects eating least of the bland/HED version, suggesting some un-learned satiating effects. No such compensation for ED was seen in the palatable/HED condition, and overall energy intake increased with ED. Palatability had the expected stimulatory effect on appetite, but rated hunger decreased more rapidly as a function of energy consumed in the HED conditions. Experiment 2 introduced novel distinctive flavours to examine whether repeated experience of palatable HED and LED versions resulted in learned satiety. Participants ate the same mass of LED and HED versions on first exposure, but after two training days with each food, where they consumed a fixed amount, they subsequently ate a greater mass of the LED version, consistent with learned satiety. Increased intake was accompanied by a slower rate of decline in hunger in the LED condition. Despite these changes, energy intake remained higher with the HED version. Liking for the LED version was greater than the HED version at the end, possibly due to mild aversive qualities of eating a fixed portion of the HED food during training. Together these data suggest that energy density is the major determinant of short-term energy intake in the absence of orosensory cues predictive of energy differences, but that learning of flavour-energy associations can, to some extent, allow short-term energy consumption to be regulated.
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ABSTRACT: After we consume a novel food an association can form between its sensory characteristics (e.g., taste properties) and the effect it has on the body (rewarding). Associations of this kind underpin much of our everyday dietary behavior because they mediate both the affective quality of food (flavor-preference learning) and the amount that we choose to consume (learning satiation). Notwithstanding this fact, very few studies have successfully demonstrated the process of dietary learning in human adults. In addition, based on evidence from related research, we explored whether learning is less likely to occur in individuals who have high scores on a measure of dietary restraint. Female participants (N = 44) consumed two differently flavored desserts. Each was presented three times on separate days. One was formulated with a high-energy content (1882 kJ) and the other with a low-energy content (226 kJ). After training, we found little evidence for learned satiation. However, we did observe flavor-preference learning. Specifically, participants acquired a greater liking and desire-to-eat the dessert flavor that was paired with a higher energy density during training. Further analysis revealed that this effect on liking is qualified by dietary restraint. As predicted, unrestrained eaters demonstrated greater differential responding to the two desserts than did restrained eaters. These data provide further evidence for flavor-nutrient learning in adults and they highlight a hitherto unexplored and potentially important difference between restrained and unrestrained eaters.Physiology & Behavior 02/2007; 90(1):133-41. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.09.016 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The consumption of liquid calories has been implicated in the development of obesity and weight gain. Energy-containing drinks are often reported to have a weak satiety value: one explanation for this is that because of their fluid texture they are not expected to have much nutritional value. It is important to consider what features of these drinks can be manipulated to enhance their expected satiety value. Two studies investigated the perception of subtle changes in a drink’s viscosity, and the extent to which thick texture and creamy flavour contribute to the generation of satiety expectations. Participants in the first study rated the sensory characteristics of 16 fruit yogurt drinks of increasing viscosity. In study two, a new set of participants evaluated eight versions of the fruit yogurt drink, which varied in thick texture, creamy flavour and energy content, for sensory and hedonic characteristics and satiety expectations. Results In study one, participants were able to perceive small changes in drink viscosity that were strongly related to the actual viscosity of the drinks. In study two, the thick versions of the drink were expected to be more filling and have a greater expected satiety value, independent of the drink’s actual energy content. A creamy flavour enhanced the extent to which the drink was expected to be filling, but did not affect its expected satiety. Conclusions These results indicate that subtle manipulations of texture and creamy flavour can increase expectations that a fruit yogurt drink will be filling and suppress hunger, irrespective of the drink’s energy content. A thicker texture enhanced expectations of satiety to a greater extent than a creamier flavour, and may be one way to improve the anticipated satiating value of energy-containing beverages.01/2012; 1(1). DOI:10.1186/2044-7248-1-20
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