Effects of palatability and learned satiety on energy density influences on breakfast intake in humans.
ABSTRACT The present report explored firstly how palatability modified the effects of energy density (ED) on short-term food intake and changes in rated appetite within a single test meal, and secondly how repeated consumption altered these relationships. Experiment 1 contrasted disguised high (HED) and low (LED) versions of a food presented in bland and palatable forms. Mass consumed varied as an interaction of palatability and ED, with subjects eating least of the bland/HED version, suggesting some un-learned satiating effects. No such compensation for ED was seen in the palatable/HED condition, and overall energy intake increased with ED. Palatability had the expected stimulatory effect on appetite, but rated hunger decreased more rapidly as a function of energy consumed in the HED conditions. Experiment 2 introduced novel distinctive flavours to examine whether repeated experience of palatable HED and LED versions resulted in learned satiety. Participants ate the same mass of LED and HED versions on first exposure, but after two training days with each food, where they consumed a fixed amount, they subsequently ate a greater mass of the LED version, consistent with learned satiety. Increased intake was accompanied by a slower rate of decline in hunger in the LED condition. Despite these changes, energy intake remained higher with the HED version. Liking for the LED version was greater than the HED version at the end, possibly due to mild aversive qualities of eating a fixed portion of the HED food during training. Together these data suggest that energy density is the major determinant of short-term energy intake in the absence of orosensory cues predictive of energy differences, but that learning of flavour-energy associations can, to some extent, allow short-term energy consumption to be regulated.
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of varying the energy density (ED) of high carbohydrate (HC) diets on food and energy intake (EI), subjective hunger and body weight in humans. Randomised cross-over design. Subjects were each studied twice during 14 d, throughout which they had ad libitum access to one of two covertly-manipulated diets. Six healthy men (mean age (s.d.)=32.17 y s.d. (5.26 y), mean weight=69.74 kg s.d. (2.75 kg), mean height=1.76 m s.d. (0.05 m), body mass index (BMI)=22.57 (2.2) kg/m2) were studied. The fat, carbohydrate (CHO) and protein content (as % energy) and ED of each diet were 21:66:13% and 357 kJ/100 g, (low-energy density (LED)) or 22:66:12% and 629 kJ/100 g (high-energy density (HED)). A medium fat diet was provided at maintenance (1.6 x BMR, MF for 2 d) before each ad libitum period. Subjects could alter the amount, but not the composition of foods eaten. Mean EI was 8.67 and 14.82 MJ/d on the LED and HED diets, respectively. Subjects felt significantly more hungry on the LED diet, than on the HED diet (F(1,160)38.28; P < 0.001) and found the diets to be similarly pleasant (72.72 mm vs 71.54 mm (F(1,392)0.31; P = 0.579)). Mean body weight decreased on the LED diet at a rate of 0.1 kg/d and increased at 0.06 kg/d on the HED diet (F(1,131)86.60; P < 0.001), giving total weight changes of -1.41 kg and +0.84 kg, respectively, both of which were significantly different from zero (P < 0.01). Excess EI is possible on HC, HED diets, at least under conditions where diet selection is precluded. Comparison of these results with previous studies, which altered ED using fat, suggests that CHO may be a better cue for hunger than fat.International Journal of Obesity 09/1998; 22(9):885-92. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous research suggests that enhancing the volume of a food preload without altering energy content can result in reduced appetite, although the limited evidence means that the conditions under which this effect will occur are not yet clear. In the present study, we used a Universal Eating Monitor (UEM) to record test meal intake constantly, in parallel with appetite ratings, following soup-based preloads that varied both in volume (150 vs. 450 ml) and energy density (1.4 vs. 4.2 kJ/ml). Healthy young men (n=20) received four different preload conditions (repeated measures) followed by unlimited hot pasta test meals (interval 30 min). They completed appetite ratings during and after each laboratory session, and food diaries for the afternoon and evening following each session. Subjective appetite after the preloads was reduced by the high-volume preloads relative to low-volume preloads, with no difference between the two at each volume level. This indicates an effect of volume, but no effect of energy. Test meal intake in the high-volume, high-energy-density condition was reduced relative to the other conditions, which did not differ from one another. This indicates an effect of total energy, but no effect of volume. The dissociation between these different measures of appetite might be explained in terms of largely cognitive influences on subjective appetite between preload and test meal, contrasted with stronger physiological influences on actual intake during the test meal. With regard to previous studies, it is argued that food volume is more influential under circumstances where gastric volume is closer to its normal limits.Physiology & Behavior 06/2002; 76(1):57-64. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of covert alterations in the energy density (ED) of mixed, medium fat (MF) diets on ad libitum food and energy intake (EI), subjective hunger and body weight in humans. Randomised cross-over design. Subjects were each studied three times (factorial design), during 14d, throughout which they had ad libitum access to one of three covertly-manipulated MF diets. Six healthy men, mean age (s.e.m.) = 30.0 y (12.76 y), mean weight = 71.67 kg (19.80 kg); mean height = 1.79 m (0.22 m), body mass index (BMI) = 22.36 (2.60) kg/m2, were studied. The fat, carbohydrate (CHO) and protein in each diet (as a proportion of the total energy) and energy density (ED) were, low-ED (LED), 38:49:13%; 373 kJ/100 g; medium-ED (MED), 40:47:13%; 549 kJ/100 g; high-ED (HED), 39:48:13%; 737 kJ/100 g. Subjects could alter the amount but not the composition of foods eaten. They were resident in (but not confined to) a metabolic suite throughout the study. Solid food intake decreased as ED increased, giving mean values of 2.84, 2.51 and 2.31 kg/d, respectively. This was insufficient to defend energy balance, since energy intake increased with increasing ED (F(2,10) 16.08; P < 0.001) giving mean intakes of 10.12, 12.80 and 16.17 MJ/d, respectively. Rated pleasantness of food (measured on visual analogue scales) was not significantly different between diets nor was subjective hunger different between the LED, MED and HED diets, respectively. Diet significantly affected body weight (F(2,10) = 4.62; P = 0.038), producing changes of -1.20, 0.02 and 0.95 kg, respectively, by day 14. Dietary ED can influence EI and body weight, since changes in amount eaten alone are insufficient to defend energy balance, when subjects feed on unfamiliar diets and diet selection is precluded. Comparison with our previous studies suggest that there was compensation in solid food intake when ED was altered using mixed diets (as in this study) compared to previous studies which primarily used fat or CHO to alter dietary ED.International Journal of Obesity 10/1998; 22(10):980-7. · 5.22 Impact Factor