Effects of palatability and learned satiety on energy density influences on breakfast intake in humans
ABSTRACT The present report explored firstly how palatability modified the effects of energy density (ED) on short-term food intake and changes in rated appetite within a single test meal, and secondly how repeated consumption altered these relationships. Experiment 1 contrasted disguised high (HED) and low (LED) versions of a food presented in bland and palatable forms. Mass consumed varied as an interaction of palatability and ED, with subjects eating least of the bland/HED version, suggesting some un-learned satiating effects. No such compensation for ED was seen in the palatable/HED condition, and overall energy intake increased with ED. Palatability had the expected stimulatory effect on appetite, but rated hunger decreased more rapidly as a function of energy consumed in the HED conditions. Experiment 2 introduced novel distinctive flavours to examine whether repeated experience of palatable HED and LED versions resulted in learned satiety. Participants ate the same mass of LED and HED versions on first exposure, but after two training days with each food, where they consumed a fixed amount, they subsequently ate a greater mass of the LED version, consistent with learned satiety. Increased intake was accompanied by a slower rate of decline in hunger in the LED condition. Despite these changes, energy intake remained higher with the HED version. Liking for the LED version was greater than the HED version at the end, possibly due to mild aversive qualities of eating a fixed portion of the HED food during training. Together these data suggest that energy density is the major determinant of short-term energy intake in the absence of orosensory cues predictive of energy differences, but that learning of flavour-energy associations can, to some extent, allow short-term energy consumption to be regulated.
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ABSTRACT: The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight.Advances in Nutrition 11/2014; 5(6):835-50. DOI:10.3945/an.114.007112 · 4.90 Impact Factor
Animal Production Science 01/2015; 55(3):261. DOI:10.1071/AN14449 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Designing food items with high satiating capacity is an area of increasing interest. It would be desirable for consumers to be able to make informed choices about individual products based on understanding the energy balance and the meaning of satiety. In the present work, the perceptions that consumers have of the word "satiating" and of different protein-based dishes were investigated in two populations (100 subjects related to the field of food science and technology and 100 unrelated to it). The Word Association (WA) technique was used, asking the consumers for the first four words that came into their mind when they thought of "satiating food". This was followed by a Free Listing (FL) exercise that asked them to list four satiating food items, They also completed a Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire. To evaluate the consumers' perception of the expected satiating capacity of different protein-based meals, they were shown eight photographs of equicaloric dishes composed of one piece of protein (beef, pork, chicken or fish) and one of two different side vegetables (salad or boiled potatoes). The expected satiety scores ranked fish last among the protein foods and potatoes last among the side vegetables. The results indicated that "satiating" food was related more with the immediate sensation of "stomach full" than with the cessation of hunger. This was reinforced by the mention of negative sensations of discomfort after a copious meal. Hearty dishes and meat were the meals most associated with satiating food items.Food Research International 08/2014; 62:551-560. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2014.03.065 · 3.05 Impact Factor