Use of bupropion in combination with serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
ABSTRACT Incomplete symptom remission and sexual side effects are common problems for which bupropion often is added to treatment with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs and SNRIs) for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This article reviews the literature on combining bupropion with SSRIs or SNRIs. We used MEDLINE to select studies that included patients diagnosed with MDD treated with any combination of bupropion and an SSRI or SNRI, either to enhance antidepressant response or to ameliorate antidepressant-associated sexual dysfunction. Bibliographies of located articles were searched for additional studies. Controlled and open-label studies support the effectiveness of bupropion in reversing antidepressant-associated sexual dysfunction, whereas open trials suggest that combination treatment with bupropion and an SSRI or SNRI is effective for the treatment of MDD in patients refractory to the SSRI, SNRI, or bupropion alone. The available data suggest that, although not an approved indication, the combination of bupropion and either an SSRI or an SNRI is generally well tolerated, can boost antidepressant response, and can reduce SSRI or SNRI-associated sexual side effects. Additional randomized controlled studies are needed to answer important questions, such as those regarding optimal dose and duration of treatment.
SourceAvailable from: Barbara J Caldarone[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Major depression is a prevalent and debilitating disorder and a substantial proportion of patients fail to reach remission following standard antidepressant pharmacological treatment. Limited efficacy with currently available antidepressant drugs highlights the need to develop more effective medications for treatment resistant patients and emphasizes the importance of developing better preclinical models that focus on treatment resistant populations. This review discusses methods to adapt and refine rodent behavioral models that are predictive of antidepressant efficacy to identify populations that show reduced responsiveness or are resistant to traditional antidepressants. Methods include separating antidepressant responders from non-responders, administering treatments that render animals resistant to traditional pharmacological treatments, and identifying genetic models that show antidepressant resistance. This review also examines pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments regimes that have been effective in refractory patients and how some of these approaches have been used to validate animal models of treatment-resistant depression. The goals in developing rodent models of treatment- resistant depression are to understand the neurobiological mechanisms involved in antidepressant resistance and to develop valid models to test novel therapies that would be effective in patients that do not respond to traditional monoaminergic antidepressants. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.European Journal of Pharmacology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.10.063 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: What is known and objectiveThe current pharmacotherapeutic treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) generally takes weeks to be effective. As the molecular action of these drugs is immediate, the mechanistic basis for this lag is unclear. A drug that has a more rapid onset of action would be a major therapeutic advance and also be a useful comparator to provide valuable mechanistic insight into the disorder and its treatment.CommentRecent evidence suggests that ketamine produces rapid-onset antidepressant action. Important questions are as follows: is it specific or coincidental to other effects; is there a dose–response relationship; and is the mechanism related to that of current antidepressants. NMDA receptor antagonism is unlikely the explanation for ketamine's antidepressant action.What is new and conclusionIt is not an exaggeration to state that the new findings, if validated, might produce a revolution in understanding and treating depressive disorders.Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 12/2014; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12238 · 2.10 Impact Factor