Sensory Impairment and Cognitive Functioning in Oldest-Old Subjects: The Leiden 85+ Study

Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, C-2-R, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.
American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 4.24). 10/2005; 13(9):781-6. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajgp.13.9.781
Source: PubMed


Because studies on the association of sensory impairment (both hearing and visual impairment) and cognitive functioning in elderly persons yielded conflicting results, the authors explored this association within the Leiden 85+ Study.
Within this population-based study of 459 participants aged 85+ years, hearing impairment was measured by audiometry and visual impairment by a visual acuity chart, both under standardized conditions. The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) assessed global cognitive functioning. In participants with MMSE scores >18, the authors further assessed memory (Word-Learning Test, Immediate and Delayed Recall) and cognitive speed (by Stroop Test, Letter-Digit Coding test).
Both hearing impairment (prevalence: 85%) and visual impairment (prevalence: 59%) were associated with lower scores on the MMSE. Increasing visual impairment was associated with poorer scores on memory and cognitive speed, as measured with visually presented cognitive tests. In contrast, there was no association between hearing impairment and memory and cognitive speed.
In elderly people, cognitive functioning as assessed by visual cognitive tests relates to visual impairment but not to hearing impairment. The authors therefore assume that the association between sensory impairment and cognitive functioning is, at least partly, based on practical disadvantages of elderly persons with sensory impairment during cognitive assessments.

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    • "The strongest relationship was observed in subjective near visual impairment. Mixed results have previously been found with regard to visual performance and cognitive functioning in the elderly population [29–33, 82]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background In the context of population aging, visual impairment has emerged as a growing concern in public health. However, there is a need for further research into the relationship between visual impairment and chronic medical conditions in the elderly. The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between visual impairment and three main types of co-morbidity: chronic physical conditions (both at an independent and additive level), mental health and cognitive functioning. Methods Data were collected from the COURAGE in Europe project, a cross-sectional study. A total of 4,583 participants from Spain were included. Diagnosis of chronic medical conditions included self-reported medical diagnosis and symptomatic algorithms. Depression and anxiety were assessed using CIDI algorithms. Visual assessment included objective distance/near visual acuity and subjective visual performance. Descriptive analyses included the whole sample (n = 4,583). Statistical analyses included participants aged over 50 years (n = 3,625; mean age = 66.45 years) since they have a significant prevalence of chronic conditions and visual impairment. Crude and adjusted binary logistic regressions were performed to identify independent associations between visual impairment and chronic medical conditions, physical multimorbidity and mental conditions. Covariates included age, gender, marital status, education level, employment status and urbanicity. Results The number of chronic physical conditions was found to be associated with poorer results in both distance and near visual acuity [OR 1.75 (CI 1.38-2.23); OR 1.69 (CI 1.27-2.24)]. At an independent level, arthritis, stroke and diabetes were associated with poorer distance visual acuity results after adjusting for covariates [OR 1.79 (CI 1.46-2.21); OR 1.59 (CI 1.05-2.42); OR 1.27 (1.01-1.60)]. Only stroke was associated with near visual impairment [OR 3.01 (CI 1.86-4.87)]. With regard to mental health, poor subjective visual acuity was associated with depression [OR 1.61 (CI 1.14-2.27); OR 1.48 (CI 1.03-2.13)]. Both objective and subjective poor distance and near visual acuity were associated with worse cognitive functioning. Conclusions Arthritis, stroke and the co-occurrence of various chronic physical diseases are associated with higher prevalence of visual impairment. Visual impairment is associated with higher prevalence of depression and poorer cognitive function results. There is a need to implement patient-centered care involving special visual assessment in these cases.
    BMC Public Health 08/2014; 14(1):815. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-815 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "While there could be a common neuropathologic origin that underlies both hearing and cognitive decline, the hearing loss could possibly lead to a cycle of multimorbidity in different areas or may interact with other risk factors to accelerate cognitive declines [1]. The hearing impairment may also result in a deprivation of auditory inputs, leading to structural or functional changes related to cognitive function [8, 9]. Trying to fill in the gaps caused by missing speech information may result in a shortage of resources for information encoding and storage in an already reduced working memory in older adults [7, 9–11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Previous research has found that hearing loss is associated with poorer cognitive function. The question is that when a hearing impairment is being compensated for by appropriately fitted monaural hearing aids, special precautions are still needed when screening cognitive function in older adults. Objective: This research examined cognitive function in elderly hearing aid users who used monaural hearing aids and whether the presence of a hearing impairment should be accounted for when screening cognitive function in these individuals. Methods: Auditory thresholds, sentence reception thresholds, and self-reported outcomes with hearing aids were measured in 34 older hearing aid users to ensure hearing aids were appropriately fitted. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) results obtained in these participants were then compared to normative data obtained in a general older population exhibiting similar demographic characteristics. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to examine the effects of demographic and auditory variables on MMSE scores. Conclusions: Results showed that, even with appropriately fitted hearing aids, cognitive decline was significant. Besides the factors commonly measured in the literature, we believed that auditory deprivation was not being fully compensated for by hearing aids. Most importantly, screening of cognitive function should take into account the effects of hearing impairment, even when hearing devices have been appropriately fitted.
    BioMed Research International 07/2014; 2014:867852. DOI:10.1155/2014/867852 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    • "Since many of the tests used to evaluate cognitive ability in humans are visually-dependent, it is not surprising that poorer scores in these cognitive tasks are associated with visual impairment . Specifically, visual impairment has been associated with poorer scores in memory and cognition on the Mini-Mental State Exam, which has both visual and auditory components (Lin et al., 2004; Gussekloo et al., 2005; Reyes-Ortiz et al., 2005; Ishil et al., 2008) and poorer performance in visually-presented tests of memory, such as the symbol recall, picture recall and The "
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    ABSTRACT: The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age-related increases in intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 to 12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo-spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the "sensory impairment" hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic-XE, 0.00, 0.25, or 0.50%) daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age), mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50%) maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00%) exhibited impaired performance in visually-dependent, but not non-visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 09/2013; 5:52. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2013.00052 · 4.00 Impact Factor
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