Insular cortex is involved in consolidation of object recognition memory.
Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory and Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3800, USA.Learning & Memory (impact factor: 4.22). 12(5):447-9. DOI:10.1101/lm.97605 pp.447-9
Article: Stress, memory and the amygdala.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Emotionally significant experiences tend to be well remembered, and the amygdala has a pivotal role in this process. But the efficient encoding of emotional memories can become maladaptive - severe stress often turns them into a source of chronic anxiety. Here, we review studies that have identified neural correlates of stress-induced modulation of amygdala structure and function - from cellular mechanisms to their behavioural consequences. The unique features of stress-induced plasticity in the amygdala, in association with changes in other brain regions, could have long-term consequences for cognitive performance and pathological anxiety exhibited in people with affective disorders.Nature Reviews Neuroscience 07/2009; 10(6):423-33. · 26.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acetylcholine (ACh) is important for different cognitive functions such as learning, memory and attention. The release of ACh depends on its vesicular loading by the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). It has been demonstrated that VAChT expression can modulate object recognition memory. However, the role of VAChT expression on object recognition memory persistence still remains to be understood. To address this question we used distinct mouse lines with reduced expression of VAChT, as well as pharmacological manipulations of the cholinergic system. We showed that reduction of cholinergic tone impairs object recognition memory measured at 24h. Surprisingly, object recognition memory, measured at 4 days after training, was impaired by substantial, but not moderate, reduction in VAChT expression. Our results suggest that levels of acetylcholine release strongly modulate object recognition memory consolidation and appear to be of particular importance for memory persistence 4 days after training.Behavioural brain research 10/2012; · 3.22 Impact Factor
Article: Memantine improves cognition and reduces Alzheimer's-like neuropathology in transgenic mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Memantine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist that is approved for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, three groups of triple-transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice with differing levels of AD-like pathology (6, 9, and 15 months of age) were treated for 3 months with doses of memantine equivalent to those used in humans. After the treatment, memantine-treated mice had restored cognition and significantly reduced the levels of insoluble amyloid-beta (Abeta), Abeta dodecamers (Abeta*56), prefibrillar soluble oligomers, and fibrillar oligomers. The effects on pathology were stronger in older, more impaired animals. Memantine treatment also was associated with a decline in the levels of total tau and hyperphosphorylated tau. Finally, memantine pre-incubation prevented Abeta-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices of cognitively normal mice. These results suggest that the effects of memantine treatment on AD brain include disease modification and prevention of synaptic dysfunction.American Journal Of Pathology 02/2010; 176(2):870-80. · 4.89 Impact Factor
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