Increased radiation-induced apoptosis of Saos2 cells via inhibition of NFκB: A role for c-Jun N-terminal kinase
ABSTRACT To elucidate the possible effect of NFkappaB on radioresistance, we used the osteosarcoma cell line Saos2, stably expressing the NFkappaB constitutive inhibitor, mIkappaB (Saos2-mIkappaB) or stably transfected with the empty vector (Saos2-EV). Ionizing radiation induced "intrinsic" apoptosis in Saos2-mIkappaB cells but not in Saos2-EV control cells, with intact NFkappaB activity. We find as expected, that this NFkappaB activity was enhanced following irradiation in the Saos2-EV control cells. On the other hand, inhibition of NFkappaB signaling in Saos2-mIkappaB cells led to the upregulation of the pro-apoptotic systems, such as Bax protein and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)/c-Jun/AP1 signaling. Inhibition of NFkappaB resulted in decreased expression of the DNA damage protein GADD45beta, a known inhibitor of JNK. Subsequently, JNK activation of c-Jun/AP-1 proteins increased radiation-induced apoptosis in these mutants. Radiation-induced apoptosis in Saos2-mIkappaB cells was inhibited by the JNK specific inhibitor SP600125 as well as by Bcl-2 over-expression. Furthermore, release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria was increased and caspase-9 and -3 were activated following irradiation in Saos2-mIkappaB cells. Antisense inhibition of GADD45beta in Saos2-EV cells significantly enhanced apoptosis following irradiation. Our results demonstrate that radioresistance of Saos2 osteosarcoma cells is due to NFkappaB-mediated inhibition of JNK. Our study brings new insight into the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced apoptosis of osteosarcoma, and may lead to development of new therapeutic strategies against osteosarcoma.
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- "In non-pathogenic cell lines with minimal basal levels of NF-κB activity, exposure to ionizing radiation has been shown to stimulate the JNK pathway, leading to initiation of the intrinsic apoptotic program (Kuwabara et al., 2003; Dent et al., 2003). Elevated NF-κB signaling in osteosarcoma enables cells to evade radiation-induced apoptosis by inhibiting JNK pathway signaling (Eliseev et al., 2005). In addition, our data indicate that irradiation further induces NF-κB activity, subsequently escalating the resistance to radiation. "
ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma is a devastating tumor of bone, primarily affecting adolescents. Osteosarcoma tumors are notoriously radioresistant. Radioresistant cancers, including osteosarcoma, typically exhibit a considerable potential for relapse and development of metastases following treatment. Relapse and metastatic potential can, in part, be due to a specific radioresistant subpopulation of cells with stem-like characteristics, cancer stem cells, which maintain the capacity to regenerate entire tumors. In the current study, we have investigated whether in vitro treatments with parthenolide, a naturally occurring small molecule that interferes with NF-κB signaling and has various other effects, will re-sensitize cancer stem cells and the entire cell population to radiotherapy in osteosarcoma. Our results indicate that parthenolide and ionizing radiation synergistically induce cell death in LM7 osteosarcoma cells. Importantly, the combination treatment results in a significant reduction in the viability of both the overall population of osteosarcoma cells and the cancer stem cell subpopulation. This effect is dependent on the ability of parthenolide to induce oxidative stress. Therefore, as a supplement to current multimodal therapy, parthenolide may sensitize osteosarcoma tumors to radiation and greatly reduce the prevalence of relapse and metastatic progression.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 04/2012; 113(4):1282-91. DOI:10.1002/jcb.24002 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFkappaB) is a eukaryotic transcription factor that is constitutively active in human cancers and can be inhibited by the naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone, parthenolide (P). The in vitro effects of P were assessed using the androgen independent cell line, CWR22Rv1, and human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). The in vivo activity of P as a single agent and its ability to augment the efficacy of docetaxel and the anti-androgen, bicalutamide, were determined using the CWR22Rv1 xenograft model. Parthenolide at low micromolar concentration inhibited proliferation of CWR22Rv1 and HUVEC cells, promoted apoptosis and abrogated NFkappaB-DNA binding. Parthenolide downregulated anti-apoptotic genes under NFkappaB control, TRAF 1 and 2, and promoted sustained activation of c-jun-NH2 kinase (JNK). Parthenolide also augmented the in vivo efficacy of docetaxel and restored sensitivity to anti-androgen therapy. These studies demonstrate parthenolide's anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activity, and its potential to augment the efficacy of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy.The Prostate 10/2006; 66(14):1498-511. DOI:10.1002/pros.20482 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME), an estrogen metabolite, induces apoptosis in various cell types. We investigated whether 2ME pretreatment can radiosensitize colon adenocarcinoma cells. Radiosensitizing effects of 2ME were evaluated by cell death, clonogenic assay, nuclear fragmentation, and tumor progression of xenografts. Ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage was evaluated by histone H2AX phosphorylation and its foci. The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was evaluated by anti-phosphorylated JNK antibody and inhibited by the JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 or dominant-negative SEK1 expression. Clonogenic assays revealed that 2ME, but not estradiol, radiosensitized three colon carcinoma cells, DLD-1, HCT-8, and HCT-15, and strongly suppressed tumor progression of DLD-1 xenografts. Gene transfer-mediated Bcl-xL overexpression largely abolished both augmented apoptosis and reduced survival fractions. Pretreatment with 2ME enhanced H2AX phosphorylation, its foci, and phosphorylation of ATM kinase and delayed re-entry of cell cycle progression after ionizing radiation. Augmentation of both radiosensitivity and H2AX phosphorylation was substantially reduced by SP600125 or overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant SEK1. 2ME radiosensitized colon carcinoma cells through enhanced DNA damage via JNK activation, thereby representing a novel radiosensitizing therapy against colon cancer.Clinical Cancer Research 12/2006; 12(21):6532-9. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-0678 · 8.19 Impact Factor