A randomized, controlled trial to improve advance care planning among patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
ABSTRACT Although many healthcare providers and researchers consider it necessary to assist patients with end-stage chronic illnesses to plan for the end of life, they tend to avoid discussing end-of-life issues with patients before major surgery. Consequently, surgical patients and their families generally have insufficient knowledge to make plans in case of life-threatening complications.
The objective of this study was to evaluate short-term effects of Patient-Centered Advance Care Planning (PC-ACP).
Thirty-two dyads of patients undergoing cardiac surgery and their surrogates were randomly assigned to receive either the PC-ACP intervention (PC-ACP) or usual care.
Measures studied were patient-surrogate congruence regarding goals for future medical care, patient and surrogate knowledge of advance care planning and anxiety, and patient decisional conflict. Congruence and anxiety were measured before and after the intervention. Decisional conflict and knowledge of advance care planning were measured after the intervention.
Compared with the control group, PC-ACP significantly improved patient-surrogate congruence (Delta=1.27, P<0.01) and reduced patients' decisional conflict (Delta=-0.77, P<0.05). Anxiety change (pre/post) did not differ between treatment and control groups. No difference in knowledge of advance care planning was found between the 2 groups.
The PC-ACP can be an effective approach to advance care planning. Its specificity and relevance to patients' actual medical conditions (as exemplified by its plans for potential complications related to cardiac surgery) can lead to greater patient-surrogate congruence without increasing decisional conflict and anxiety.
SourceAvailable from: Rebecca A Aslakson[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BackgroundHigh-risk surgery patients may lose decision-making capacity as a result of surgical complications. Advance care planning prior to surgery may be beneficial, but remains controversial and is hindered by a lack of appropriate decision aids. This study sought to examine stakeholders’ views on the appropriateness of using decision aids, in general, to support advance care planning among high-risk surgery populations and the design of such a decision aid.MethodsKey informants were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by phone until data collected reached theoretical saturation. Key informants were asked to discuss their thoughts about advance care planning and interventions to support advance care planning, particularly for this population. Researchers took de-identified notes that were analyzed for emerging concordant, discordant, and recurrent themes using interpretative phenomenological analysis.ResultsKey informants described the importance of initiating advance care planning preoperatively, despite potential challenges present in surgical settings. In general, decision aids were viewed as an appropriate approach to support advance care planning for this population. A recipe emerged from the data that outlines tools, ingredients, and tips for success that are needed to design an advance care planning decision aid for high-risk surgical settings.ConclusionsStakeholders supported incorporating advance care planning in high-risk surgical settings and endorsed the appropriateness of using decision aids to do so. Findings will inform the next stages of developing the first advance care planning decision aid for high-risk surgery patients.BMC Palliative Care 06/2014; 13:32. DOI:10.1186/1472-684X-13-32 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to describe the experiences of participating in a person-centred information intervention aimed at parents of children with cancer. Eight parents participated in the intervention, beginning two months after their child's diagnosis. The intervention was based upon the representational approach to patient education and a mixed method approach was employed in the study. The experiences of parents and intervention nurses were captured via qualitative interviews and the effects of the intervention on parental psychosocial measures, primarily perceived stress, were evaluated using a single-case design with web-based questionnaires. Parents expressed high satisfaction with the intervention, as reported in the follow-up interviews and on the scale measuring satisfaction. However, no changes were seen in the quantitative measures of psychosocial distress. The nurses performing the intervention felt it was useful and feasible. A representational approach to providing person-centred information to parents of children with cancer was appreciated and considered feasible by both the parents and the intervention nurses. However, further research is needed considering the lack of effect on the parents' perceived stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.European journal of oncology nursing: the official journal of European Oncology Nursing Society 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ejon.2014.10.012 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Advance care planning honors patients' goals and preferences for future care by creating a plan for when illness or injury impedes the ability to think or communicate about health decisions. Fewer than 50% of severely or terminally ill patients have an advance directive in their medical record, and physicians are accurate only about 65% of the time when predicting patient preferences for intensive care. Decision aids can support the advance care planning process by providing a structured approach to informing patients about care options and prompting them to document and communicate their preferences. This review, commissioned as a technical brief by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Effective Health Care Program, provides a broad overview of current use of and research related to decision aids for adult advance care planning. Using interviews of key informants and a search of the gray and published literature from January 1990 to May 2014, the authors found that many decision aids are widely available but are not assessed in the empirical literature. The 16 published studies testing decision aids as interventions for adult advance care planning found that most are proprietary or not publicly available. Some are constructed for the general population, whereas others address disease-specific conditions that have more predictable end-of-life scenarios and, therefore, more discrete choices. New decision aids should be designed that are responsive to diverse philosophical perspectives and flexible enough to change as patients gain experience with their personal illness courses. Future efforts should include further research, training of advance care planning facilitators, dissemination and access, and tapping the potential opportunities that lie in social media or other technologies.Annals of internal medicine 07/2014; 161(6). DOI:10.7326/M14-0644 · 16.10 Impact Factor