The principal eosinophil peroxidase product, HOSCN, is a uniquely potent phagocyte oxidant inducer of endothelial cell tissue factor activity: a potential mechanism for thrombosis in eosinophilic inflammatory states

Hematology, Oncology, and Transplantation Section, Department of Medicine, and the Vascular Biology Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 02/2006; 107(2):558-65. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2005-05-2152
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In vivo, bromide (Br(-)), nitrite (NO(2)(-)), and thiocyanate (SCN(-)) compete for oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and H(2)O(2), yielding, respectively, HOBr, NO(2)., and HOSCN. We have recently shown that SCN(-) is the strongly preferred substrate for EPO in vivo and that HOSCN, in contrast with other EPO-generated oxidants and HOCl, is a relatively weak, cell-permeant, sulfhydryl (SH)-reactive oxidant. We here show that HOSCN is a uniquely potent (up to 100-fold) phagocyte oxidant inducer of tissue factor (TF) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This induction is attributable to transcriptional up-regulation of TF gene expression dependent upon both activation of the p65/c-Rel TF-kappaB transcription factor and activity of the ERK1/2 kinase pathway upstream of Egr-1 and was markedly further enhanced in the presence of wortmannin, an inhibitor of the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. HOSCN also markedly activates the proinflammatory p65/p50 NF-kappaB pathway. Based on these findings we hypothesize that HOSCN generated by adherent and infiltrating eosinophils may provoke the development of a prothrombotic and proinflammatory endothelial/endocardial phenotype that promotes the pronounced thrombotic diathesis characteristic of the hypereosinophilic syndrome.


Available from: Nigel S Key, Mar 22, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Thiocyanate (SCN(-)) is an ubiquitous molecule in mammalian biology, reaching up to mM concentrations in extracellular fluids. Two-electron oxidation of SCN(-) by H2O2 produces hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN), a potent antimicrobial species. This reaction is catalyzed by chordate peroxidases (e.g., myeloperoxidase and lactoperoxidase), occurring in human secretory mucosa, including the oral cavity, airway and alimentary tract, and regulates resident and transient flora as part of innate immunity. Increasing SCN(-) levels limits the concentrations of a family of 2-electron oxidants (H2O2, hypohalous acids and haloamines) in favor of HOSCN formation, altering the oxidative impact on host tissue by substitution of repairable thiol and selenol oxidations instead of biomolecule degradation. This fine-tuning of inflammatory oxidation paradoxically associates with maintained host defense and decreased host injury during infections, due in part to phylogenetic differences in the thioredoxin reductase system between mammals and their pathogens. These differences could be exploited by pharmacologic use of SCN(-). Recent preclinical studies have identified antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of SCN(-) in pulmonary and cardiovascular animal models, with implications for treatment of infectious lung disease and atherogenesis. Further research is merited to expand on these findings and identify other diseases where SCN(-) may be of use. High oral bioavailability and an increased knowledge of the biochemical effects of SCN(-) on a subset of pro-inflammatory reactions suggest clinical utility.
    Free Radical Research 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/10715762.2014.1003372 · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kimura disease (KD) is an uncommon chronic inflammatory disease presenting as subcutaneous lymphadenopathy with eosinophilia. To date, only a single case of brain embolism caused by fibroblastic endocarditis associated with KD has been reported. Watershed infarction was seen in patients with episodes of severe hypotension or cardiac surgery. We here report a young case of KD who developed ischemic stroke and showed multiple small infarcts in the border zones between the territories of major cerebral arteries, mimicking watershed infarction. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed patent foramen ovale and atrial septal aneurysm. Concurrently, deep venous thrombus in the femoral vein was found on duplex ultrasonography. Our case supports the notion that paradoxical brain embolism associated with KD can cause multiple small embolisms and mimic watershed infarction. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 11/2014; 24(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2014.09.018 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thrombotic risk is increased in eosinophil-mediated disorders, and several hypotheses have been proposed to link eosinophilia and thrombosis. In particular, eosinophils have been described as source of tissue factor (TF), the main initiator of blood coagulation; however, this aspect is still controversial. This study was aimed to evaluate whether TF expression varies in eosinophils isolated from normal subjects and patients with different hypereosinophilic conditions. Eosinophils were immunologically purified from peripheral blood samples of 9 patients with different hypereosinophilic conditions and 9 normal subjects. Western blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed to test eosinophil TF expression. For comparison, TF expression was evaluated in monocytes from blood donors and in human endothelial (ECV304) and fibroblast (IMR90) cell lines. Western blot analysis revealed a major band of 47,000 corresponding to native TF in homogenates of purified eosinophils with a higher intensity in the 9 patients than in the 9 controls (p<0.0001). According to RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct), TF gene expression was higher in eosinophils from patients than in those from controls, median (range) 35.10 (19.45-36.50) vs 37.17 (35.33-37.87) (p = 0.002), and was particularly abundant in one patient with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome and ischemic heart attacks (Ct: 19.45). TF gene expression was moderate in monocytes, Ct: 31.32 (29.82-33.49) and abundant in endothelial cells, Ct: 28.70 (27.79-29.57) and fibroblasts, Ct: 22.77 (19.22-25.05). Our results indicate that human blood eosinophils contain variable amounts of TF. The higher TF expression in patients with hypereosinophilic disorders may contribute to increase the thrombotic risk.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e111862. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111862 · 3.53 Impact Factor