Estimating kidney function in adults using formulae.
ABSTRACT With increasing emphasis on the earlier detection and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD), estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) has assumed greater importance. It is accepted that use of serum creatinine concentration alone as a marker of kidney function is inadequate; in particular, it has a poor sensitivity for detecting CKD. International recommendations favour the reporting of creatinine-based estimates of GFR using formulae which also take into account age, gender and other variables that affect the relationship between serum creatinine and GFR: in particular, the four-variable formula derived from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study (4-v MDRD) is increasingly being used. We have reviewed the literature supporting the use of this formula compared with the well-established Cockcroft and Gault formula. Overall, evidence supports the use of the 4-v MDRD formula as an improved estimate of GFR in people with moderate/advanced CKD. Neither formula performs well in people with normal and mildly reduced kidney function. However, there remain significant problems with this approach and areas where further research is required. In particular, the widespread adoption of estimated GFR reporting has refocused attention on the limitations of creatinine measurement and highlighted clinical situations in which the formulae are inadequate.
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ABSTRACT: Background:Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is used in the calculation of carboplatin dose. Glomerular filtration rate is measured using a radioisotope method (radionuclide GFR (rGFR)), however, estimation equations are available (estimated GFR (eGFR)). Our aim was to assess the accuracy of three eGFR equations and the subsequent carboplatin dose in an oncology population.Patients and methods:Patients referred for an rGFR over a 3-year period were selected; eGFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equations. Carboplatin doses were calculated for those patients who had received carboplatin chemotherapy. Bias, precision and accuracy were examined.Results:Two hundred and eighty-eight studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Paired t-tests showed significant differences for all three equations between rGFR and eGFR with biases of 12.3 (MDRD), 13.6 (CKD-EPI) and 7.7 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2) (CG). An overestimation in carboplatin dose was seen in 81%, 87% and 66% of studies using the MDRD, CKD-EPI and CG equations, respectively.Conclusion:The MDRD and CKD-EPI equations performed poorly compared with the reference standard rGFR; the CG equation showed smaller bias and higher accuracy in our oncology population. On the basis of our results we recommend that the rGFR should be used for accurate carboplatin chemotherapy dosing and where unavailable the use of the CG equation is preferred.British Journal of Cancer 08/2012; 107(8):1310-6. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2012.393 · 4.82 Impact Factor