Electroactive polymer-based devices for e-textiles in biomedicine.
ABSTRACT This paper describes the early conception and latest developments of electroactive polymer (EAP)-based sensors, actuators, electronic components, and power sources, implemented as wearable devices for smart electronic textiles (e-textiles). Such textiles, functioning as multifunctional wearable human interfaces, are today considered relevant promoters of progress and useful tools in several biomedical fields, such as biomonitoring, rehabilitation, and telemedicine. After a brief outline on ongoing research and the first products on e-textiles under commercial development, this paper presents the most highly performing EAP-based devices developed by our lab and other research groups for sensing, actuation, electronics, and energy generation/storage, with reference to their already demonstrated or potential applicability to electronic textiles.
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ABSTRACT: In the present work the authors made textile sensors by the screen printing method with the use of carbon nanotubes. The sensors obtained are intended for monitoring dangers in direct contact with the body. For this reason the modification of carbon nanotube dispersion, with the commercial name AquaCyl from the Nanocyl company, was performed in order to give the textiles, apart from increased electric conductivity, bacteriostatic properties, which are extremely important in the case of biomaterials.Assessment of the efficiency of the sensors both for mechanical stimuli and the action of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was performed. The main advantages of this type of prod-uct are: n increased convenience of use; n high flexibility; n easiness of movement for the user, thanks to eliminating the rigid ele-ments (e.g. wires) connecting the sen-sors with the textiles; n dimensions of the sensors. Textiles with integrated modern sensors are used for assessing different changing parameters, such as pressure, stress and deformation [7 -10]. Biomedical products manufactured with the previously mentioned properties are utilised for monitoring the heart beating, making an electrocardiogram, and con-trolling the frequency of breathing or the pulse [11 -15]. Most modern sensors are based on mi-croelectronics or conductive polymers, which are integrated with the structure of materials or fibrous structures. In the future, utilising electronic systems to make intelligent clothing will be an integral part of everyday wear . Printing is considered attractive technol-ogy in the range of the possible construc-tion of electroconductive paths, leading to the creation of intelligent products. The printing technology of electrocon-ductive paths has wide application in microelectronics, but is mainly used on plates, films, glass and on polymers. Most of the conductive inks used contain nanoparticles of silver, gold, copper, their compositions, and silver nitrate [17 -21]. The limitation of this process for appli-cation in textiles is the necessity of us-ing high temperature annealing in most cases over 200 o C. Recently research has been carried out on obtaining Ink com-positions, giving conductive properties at temperatures of about 70 °C [22 -27].01/2012;
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ABSTRACT: The development of ubiquitous vital sign monitoring has become a very up-to-date research theme for many academics and industrial companies in the last years. With new materials and integration techniques, it is possible to implement vital sign monitoring in an economic manner, directly into textile products. This unobtrusive presence of sensors is especially important for the monitoring of children or elderly people. This paper focuses on two aspects of sensor integration: Integration of off-the-shelf electronic components, and the use of the textile material itself as sensor, or in general as an electrically active element presenting some exploratory work in the integration of electronic devices into textiles. The main objective was to reproduce and improve on previous work presented by other authors, and foster possibilities of developing garments for vital sign monitoring with immediate industrial and economic feasibility. The use of standard production techniques to produce textile-based sensors, easily integrated into garments and with mass-market potential, is one of the important motivations for this work.
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ABSTRACT: This paper reports fabric circuit boards (FCBs), a new type of circuit boards, that are three-dimensionally deformable, highly stretchable, durable and washable ideally for wearable electronic applications. Fabricated by using computerized knitting technologies at ambient dry conditions, the resultant knitted FCBs exhibit outstanding electrical stability with less than 1% relative resistance change up to 300% strain in unidirectional tensile test or 150% membrane strain in three-dimensional ball punch test, extraordinary fatigue life of more than 1 000 000 loading cycles at 20% maximum strain, and satisfactory washing capability up to 30 times. To the best of our knowledge, the performance of new FCBs has far exceeded those of previously reported metal-coated elastomeric films or other organic materials in terms of changes in electrical resistance, stretchability, fatigue life and washing capability as well as permeability. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation illustrate that the structural conversion of knitted fabrics is attributed to the effective mitigation of strain in the conductive metal fibres, hence the outstanding mechanical and electrical properties. Those distinctive features make the FCBs particularly suitable for next-to-skin electronic devices. This paper has further demonstrated the application potential of the knitted FCBs in smart protective apparel for in situ measurement during ballistic impact.Proceedings of The Royal Society A Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 09/2014; · 2.38 Impact Factor