This paper describes the early conception and latest developments of electroactive polymer (EAP)-based sensors, actuators, electronic components, and power sources, implemented as wearable devices for smart electronic textiles (e-textiles). Such textiles, functioning as multifunctional wearable human interfaces, are today considered relevant promoters of progress and useful tools in several biomedical fields, such as biomonitoring, rehabilitation, and telemedicine. After a brief outline on ongoing research and the first products on e-textiles under commercial development, this paper presents the most highly performing EAP-based devices developed by our lab and other research groups for sensing, actuation, electronics, and energy generation/storage, with reference to their already demonstrated or potential applicability to electronic textiles.
"extensively and effortlessly integrated into the daily life of a patient in the form of wireless body sensor networks (WBANs) . So far, most research efforts in this direction have been focused on the adaptation of miniaturized wearable designs based on relatively mature technologies such as motion tracking , bio-electrical signals analysis  and temperature detection . On the other hand, the biochemical analytes contained in biological fluids have been often overlooked as possible sensor targets despite the valuable information they convey about the state of health of an individual. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The state of the art and future challenges related to wearable chemical sensors are addressed within this review. Our attention is focused on the monitoring of biological fluids such as interstitial fluids, breath, sweat, saliva and tears, while aiming at the realization of miniaturized, non-invasive and low cost point of care systems. The development of such sensing devices is influenced by many factors and are usually addressed through the use of “smart materials” such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, poly ionic liquids, etc. These are seen as the pivotal steps towards the integration of chemical sensors within pervasive applications for personal health care.
Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 05/2015; 211:403-418. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2015.01.077 · 4.10 Impact Factor
"Several studies have been carried out to show that a textile sensor is a practical and wearable electric device [6–9]. Electronic textiles (e-textiles) are used in the entertainment industry and the fashion industry, as well as for communication, sensing and monitoring, even for position location [10–15]. Due to the rigidity of an alloy strain gauge, the maximum static strain level is limited to low stress measurements. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work a wearable gesture sensing device consisting of a textile strain sensor, using elastic conductive webbing, was designed for monitoring the flexion angle of elbow and knee movements. The elastic conductive webbing shows a linear response of resistance to the flexion angle. The wearable gesture sensing device was calibrated and then the flexion angle-resistance equation was established using an assembled gesture sensing apparatus with a variable resistor and a protractor. The proposed device successfully monitored the flexion angle during elbow and knee movements.
"method for ubiquitous health care systems , . The category of wearable sensor networks includes both wearable textile sensors ,  and miniaturized wired and wireless electronic circuits –. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrode properties are key to the quality of measured biopotential signals. Ubiquitous health care systems require long-term monitoring of biopotential signals from normal volunteers and patients in home or hospital environments. In these settings it is appropriate to use dry textile electrode networks for monitoring purposes, rather than the gel or saline-sponge skin interfaces used with Ag/AgCl electrodes. In this study, we report performance test results of two different electrospun conductive nanofiber webs, and three metal plated fabrics. We evaluated contact impedance, step response, noise and signal fidelity performance indices for all five dry electrodes, and compared them to those of conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes. Overall, we found nanofiber web electrodes matched Ag/AgCl electrode performance more closely than metal plated fabric electrodes, with the contact resistance and capacitance of Ag plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes being most similar to Ag/AgCl over the 10 Hz to 500 kHz frequency range. We also observed that step responses of all three metal-plated fabrics were poorer than those for nanofiber web electrodes and Ag/AgCl. Further, noise standard deviation and noise power spectral densities were generally lower in nanofiber web electrodes than metal plated fabrics; and waveform fidelity of ECG-like traces recorded from nanofiber web electrodes was higher than for metal plated fabrics. We recommend textile nanofiber web electrodes in applications where flexibility, comfort and durability are required in addition to good electrical characteristics.
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems 04/2013; 7(2):204-11. DOI:10.1109/TBCAS.2012.2201154 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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