Doppler tissue imaging: a reliable method for estimation of left ventricular filling pressure in patients with mitral regurgitation.
ABSTRACT Doppler of mitral and pulmonary vein flows are used to estimate left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. Mitral regurgitation (MR) makes unreliable these parameters by inducing changes of both mitral inflow and pulmonary vein flow.
To evaluate whether Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) diastolic indices obtained at the level of LV lateral mitral annulus can provide accurate estimation of LV filling pressure in patients with MR.
Forty-three patients (age 55 +/- 11 years) with severe MR and mean LV ejection fraction (EF) 58 +/- 13 were enrolled, 10 (23%) with LV EF < 50% and 33 (77%) with LV EF > 50%. Doppler signals from the mitral inflow, pulmonary venous flow, and DTI indices of the lateral mitral annulus were obtained. LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was measured invasively with fluid-filled catheter.
In the overall population, the majority of standard Doppler and DTI indices correlated with LVEDP, but the multivariate analysis showed that the ratio of mitral velocity to early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (E/Em ratio) (beta = .87, P = .0001) was independent predictor of LVEDP (R2 = 0.74, SE = 4, P = .0001). An E/Em ratio > 10 predicted an LVEDP > 15 mm Hg (sensitivity 90%, specificity 83%). In both groups with LV EF > 50% (beta = .77, P = .005; cumulative R2 = 0.73, SE = 2.5, P = .0001) and < 50% (beta = .89, P = .002; cumulative R2 = 0.77, SE = 2.1, P = .002), multivariate analysis underscored again only E/Em ratio as independent predictor of LVEDP.
The combination of DTI indices of the mitral annulus and mitral inflow velocities provides reliable parameters to predict LV filling pressure in patients with MR both in patients with LV EF > 50% and < 50%.
- Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 09/2006; 20(4):583-93. DOI:10.1053/j.jvca.2006.02.034 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In cardiac research, a major goal of prevention of catastrophic events by risk-factor management and earlier detection has, in recent years, led to a proliferation of imaging modalities, moving us from old-fashioned chest X-ray through increasingly sophisticated approaches such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multi-slice fast computer-aided tomography (CT) scanning. Today, we have the option of using a vast array of invasive and non-invasive approaches, with diverse technical underpinnings, to assess various, and often overlapping aspects of cardiac function. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and the related applications of strain and strain rate imaging are new technologies that are now being evaluated in the realm of practical patient care, and the underlying principles remind us that cardiac contractility is a reflection of the integration of muscle fibre architecture, mechanics and metabolism. TDI is the first technology that allowed imaging of motion within the myocardial wall rather than that of the blood pool, and permits analysis of velocities and accelerations from ultrasonic scatterers in muscle. Since its inception, it has been used to evaluate both new cardiac functional parameters as well as conventional function; for some of these, TDI has proven the superior imaging modality, while for others it offers only incremental information over conventional approaches.Cardiovascular journal of Africa 01/2007; 18(6):387-92. · 0.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The differentiation of training-induced cardiac adaptations from pathological conditions is a key issue in sports cardiology. As morphological features do not allow for a clear delineation of early stages of relevant pathologies, the echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular function is the technique of first choice in this regard. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a relatively recent method for the assessment of cardiac function that provides direct, local measurements of myocardial velocities throughout the cardiac cycle. Although it has shown a superior sensitivity in the detection of ventricular dysfunction in clinical and experimental studies, its application in sports medicine is still rare. Besides technical factors, this may be due to a lack in consensus on the characteristics of ventricular function in relevant conditions. For more than two decades there has been an ongoing debate on the existence of a supernormal left ventricular function in athlete's heart. While results from traditional echocardiography are conflicting, TDI studies established an improved diastolic function in endurance-trained athletes with athlete's heart compared with controls.The influence of anabolic steroids on cardiac function also has been investigated by standard echocardiographic techniques with inconsistent results. The only TDI study dealing with this topic demonstrated a significantly impaired diastolic function in bodybuilders with long-term abuse of anabolic steroids compared with strength-trained athletes without abuse of anabolic steroids and controls, respectively.Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most frequent cause of sudden death in young athletes. However, in its early stages, it is difficult to distinguish from athlete's heart. By means of TDI, ventricular dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be disclosed even before the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, a differentiation of left ventricular hypertrophy due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or systemic hypertension is possible by TDI. Besides the evaluation of different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy, the diagnosis of myocarditis is also of particular importance in athletes. Today, it still requires myocardial biopsy. The analysis of focal disturbances in myocardial velocities might be a promising non-invasive method; however, systematic validation studies are lacking. An important future issue for the implementation of TDI into routine examination will be the standardisation of procedures and the establishment of significant reference values for the above-mentioned conditions. Innovative TDI parameters also merit further investigation.Sports Medicine 02/2007; 37(1):15-30. DOI:10.2165/00007256-200737010-00002 · 5.32 Impact Factor