Doppler tissue imaging: a reliable method for estimation of left ventricular filling pressure in patients with mitral regurgitation.
ABSTRACT Doppler of mitral and pulmonary vein flows are used to estimate left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. Mitral regurgitation (MR) makes unreliable these parameters by inducing changes of both mitral inflow and pulmonary vein flow.
To evaluate whether Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) diastolic indices obtained at the level of LV lateral mitral annulus can provide accurate estimation of LV filling pressure in patients with MR.
Forty-three patients (age 55 +/- 11 years) with severe MR and mean LV ejection fraction (EF) 58 +/- 13 were enrolled, 10 (23%) with LV EF < 50% and 33 (77%) with LV EF > 50%. Doppler signals from the mitral inflow, pulmonary venous flow, and DTI indices of the lateral mitral annulus were obtained. LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was measured invasively with fluid-filled catheter.
In the overall population, the majority of standard Doppler and DTI indices correlated with LVEDP, but the multivariate analysis showed that the ratio of mitral velocity to early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (E/Em ratio) (beta = .87, P = .0001) was independent predictor of LVEDP (R2 = 0.74, SE = 4, P = .0001). An E/Em ratio > 10 predicted an LVEDP > 15 mm Hg (sensitivity 90%, specificity 83%). In both groups with LV EF > 50% (beta = .77, P = .005; cumulative R2 = 0.73, SE = 2.5, P = .0001) and < 50% (beta = .89, P = .002; cumulative R2 = 0.77, SE = 2.1, P = .002), multivariate analysis underscored again only E/Em ratio as independent predictor of LVEDP.
The combination of DTI indices of the mitral annulus and mitral inflow velocities provides reliable parameters to predict LV filling pressure in patients with MR both in patients with LV EF > 50% and < 50%.
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary venous flow varies with different cardiac conditions. Flow patterns in response to mitral regurgitation have not been well studied, but flows may vary enough to differentiate among different grades of regurgitation. Accordingly, pulmonary venous flow velocities were recorded in 50 consecutive patients referred for outpatient (n = 26) or intraoperative (mitral valve repair; n = 24) echocardiographic examination for mitral regurgitation. Recordings were made of right and left upper pulmonary veins with pulsed wave Doppler transesophageal echocardiography. Mitral regurgitation was graded from 1+ to 4+ by an independent observer using transesophageal color flow mapping. The results of cardiac catheterization performed 5 weeks earlier in 43 of the patients were also graded for mitral regurgitation by an independent observer. Pulmonary venous flow patterns, the presence of reversed systolic flow and peak systolic and diastolic flow velocities were compared with the severity of mitral regurgitation indicated by each technique. Of the 28 patients with 4+ regurgitation by transesophageal color flow mapping, 26 (93%) had reversed systolic flow. The sensitivity of reversed systolic flow in detecting 4+ mitral regurgitation by transesophageal color flow mapping was 93% and the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of reversed systolic flow in detecting 4+ mitral regurgitation by cardiac catheterization were 86% and 81%, respectively. Discordant flows were observed in 9 (24%) of 38 patients; the left vein usually showed blunted systolic flow and the right showed reversed systolic flow. In 22 intraoperative patients, there was "normalization" of pulmonary venous systolic flow after mitral valve repair in the postcardiopulmonary bypass study compared with the prebypass study after the mitral regurgitant leak was corrected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/1991; 18(2):518-26. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives.The aim of this study was to investigate factors affecting pulmonary venous flow patterns in mitral regurgitation.Background.Although pulmonary venous flow velocity patterns have been reported to be helpful in assessing the severity of mitral regurgitation, the influence of regurgitant jet direction, pulmonary venous location and left atrial pressures on pulmonary venous flow patterns has yet to be clarified.Methods.The mitral regurgitant jet was produced by a pulsatile piston pump at 10, 30 and 40 ml/beat through a circular orifice, whereas the pulmonary venous flow was driven by gravity. Four different patterns of pulmonary venous flow and mitral regurgitation were examined. The V wave pressure was set at 10, 30 and 50 mm Hg and pulmonary venous flow velocity at 30 cm/s. Color and pulsed Doppler recordings were obtained with a VingMed 800 scanner interfaced with a computer facilitating digital analysis.Results.The decrease in the velocity time integral of pulmonary venous flow was more prominent for any given volume of mitral regurgitation at higher left atrial pressure. When the mitral regurgitant jet was directed toward the pulmonary vein, a more prominent decrease in the velocity time integral was seen, especially for severe mitral regurgitation (40 ml) with high left atrial pressure (95% vs. 55%, p < 0.001); and the time to peak deceleration of forward flow was significantly shorter (485 vs. 523 ms, respectively, p < 0.01). Also, two different types (laminar and turbulent) of reversed pulmonary venous flow were observed.Conclusions.Multiple factors, including jet direction, mitral regurgitant volume and left atrial pressure, determine the effect of mitral regurgitation on pulmonary venous flow velocity patterns.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/1995; · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Complicating mitral regurgitation (MR) apparently enhances left ventricular ejection fraction, thereby leading to the underestimation of myocardial damage by routine echocardiography. We sought to assess the significance of myocardial velocity gradient (MVG) derived from Doppler tissue imaging as an indicator of the severity of myocardial damage in the presence or absence of MR. Peak systolic and diastolic MVG was obtained from 39 participants: 12 healthy participants, 10 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy complicating moderate to severe MR [MR (+) group], and 17 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy without significant MR [MR (-) group]. MVG was compared with standard echocardiographic and Doppler transmitral flow velocity indices. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels were measured in all patients. Left ventricular dimension and fractional shortening was similar between MR (+) and MR (-) groups. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels were significantly increased in MR (+) group (440 +/- 417 pg/mL) as compared with MR (-) group (122 +/- 107 pg/mL, P <.05). Peak systolic MVG was significantly attenuated in dilated cardiomyopathy group with or without MR [MR (+) group = 1.3 +/- 0.5 seconds(-1), MR (-) group = 2.1 +/- 0.5 seconds(-1), where normal = 4.0 +/- 0.9 seconds(-1), P <.01, respectively]. Peak systolic MVG was further attenuated in MR (+) group than in MR (-) group (P <.01). Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels were negatively correlated with peak systolic MVG (r = -0.66, P <.0005). Peak diastolic MVG was attenuated in MR (+) and also in MR (-) groups [MR (+) group = -4.5 +/- 2.0 seconds(-1), MR (-) group = -4.4 +/- 1.1 seconds(-1), where normal = -8.7 +/- 2.4 seconds(-1), P <.01, respectively], whereas transmitral flow indices failed to distinguish MR (+) group from normal as a result of pseudonormalization. MVG may reflect the severity of myocardial damage regardless of the presence or absence of complicating MR.Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 03/2003; 16(3):246-53. · 4.28 Impact Factor