Though milky nipple discharge is frequently seen in neonates, blood stained discharge from the nipple is an exceptionally rare phenomenon. We noted a case of a three-month-old baby girl who presented with bilateral blood stained nipple discharge without signs of inflammation; engorgement or hypertrophy and which subsided without any intervention. This case is reported along with literature review about managing this rare condition.
"Kelly et al14) mentioned a diagnostic approach to the evaluation of bloody nipple discharges in infants. In an infant apparently experiencing bloody nipple discharge, the initial workup should include a Gram-stain; cell count and culture of the discharge; serum levels of prolactin, estradiol, and thyrotropin; and an ultrasound of the affected breast. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although milky nipple discharge appears frequently in infants, bloody nipple discharge is a very rare finding. We experienced a 4-month-old, breast-fed infant who showed bilateral bloody nipple discharge with no signs of infection, engorgement, or hypertrophy. The infant's hormonal examination and coagulation tests were normal, and an ultrasound examination revealed mammary duct ectasia. The symptoms resolved spontaneously within 6 weeks without any specific treatment, except that we advised the mother to refrain from taking herbal medicine. Since no such case has been previously reported in Korea, we present this case with a brief review of the literature.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics 10/2010; 53(10):917-20. DOI:10.3345/kjp.2010.53.10.917
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic algorithm (GA) is a general purpose optimization
technique based on mechanisms inspired from natural genetics and natural
selection. It is very suitable for solving nonlinear, multi-constraint,
combinatorial optimization problems which are tough for conventional
methods, However, the simple genetic algorithm (SGA) may have a slow
convergence or even cannot reach the global optimum. Therefore, an
enhanced GA is proposed in this paper to solve the unit commitment
problem in power systems. The new features of the enhanced GA include
chromosome mapping, problem specific operators and local search
technique. As expected, it has a significantly improved performance of
finding the optimum solution to the unit commitment problem
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bloody nipple discharge occurs rarely in infancy and may be secondary to mammary ductal ectasia. Discharge commonly resolves spontaneously, and ultrasonography is a useful diagnostic technique to detect the cause of discharge. We report a 28-month-old boy who presented with unilateral bloody nipple discharge for one month without signs of infection or mass. Ultrasound examination showed a dilated duct in the retroareolar region. No atypical cells were present on cytologic evaluation of the discharge. Further diagnostic studies were avoided and the discharge ceased completely one month later. We conclude that bloody nipple discharge is usually a benign and self-limited process in infancy and that it is advisable to avoid unnecessary invasive investigations initially. Invasive diagnostic studies or surgery should be reserved for cases with a palpable mass, persistent discharge or equivocal ultrasonographic findings.
The Turkish journal of pediatrics 01/2005; 47(4):379-81. · 0.43 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.