Symptomatic therapy and neurorehabilitation in multiple sclerosis.
ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with a variety of symptoms and functional deficits that result in a range of progressive impairments and handicap. Symptoms that contribute to loss of independence and restrictions in social activities lead to continuing decline in quality of life. Our aim is to give an updated overview on the management of symptoms and rehabilitation measures in MS. Appropriate use of these treatment options might help to reduce long-term consequences of MS in daily life. First, we review treatment of the main symptoms of MS: fatigue, bladder and bowel disturbances, sexual dysfunction, cognitive and affective disorders, and spasticity. Even though these symptomatic therapies have benefits, their use is limited by possible side-effects. Moreover, many common disabling symptoms, such as weakness, are not amenable to drug treatment. However, neurorehabilitation has been shown to ease the burden of these symptoms by improving self-performance and independence. Second, we discuss comprehensive multidisciplinary rehabilitation and specific treatment options. Even though rehabilitation has no direct influence on disease progression, studies to date have shown that this type of intervention improves personal activities and ability to participate in social activities, thereby improving quality of life. Treatment should be adapted depending on: the individual patient's needs, demands of their surrounding environment, type and degree of disability, and treatment goals. Improvement commonly persists for several months beyond the treatment period, mostly as a result of reconditioning and adaptation and appropriate use of medical and social support at home. These findings suggest that quality of life is determined by disability and handicap more than by functional deficits and disease progression.
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ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) often leads to different levels of severity and progression of impairment and disability and to dissimilar levels of limitation in activities and participation in different social domains, with varying impacts on quality of life (QoL) among people with MS (PwMS). Results have shown that, for PwMS, prioritizing goal setting may enhance adherence to treatment. Interdisciplinary rehabilitation may prolong the functional status level of PwMS, may result in transient improvement in the aspects of impairment features, may increase their participation in activities, and may improve their QoL, even when disease progression is not modified. Single rehabilitation packages of comprehensive care have proven beneficial, such as physiotherapy, which enhances aerobic capacity, strength, pain, mood, mobility, and QoL. Occupational therapy can help reduce the impact of impairment on QoL, especially fatigue. Neuropsychological interventions, such as learning and memory remediation, psychological intervention for depressive disorders, and acquistion of coping skills and self-management techniques help PwMS to adjust to disease and disability. Speech therapy can improve intelligibility of communication. Learning swallowing techniques can help prevent material from entering the airway. Clean intermittent self-catheterization can help prevent urinary tract infections. Power wheelchairs enhance occupational performance and energy conservation. Further vocational rehabilitation settings and research are required for more appropriate interventions due to high unemployment rates among PwMS. Comprehensive care for PwMS should include planning for future independent living and long-term care needs.Critical Reviews in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 01/2010; 22(1-4):179-139. DOI:10.1615/CritRevPhysRehabilMed.v22.i1-4.100
- Frontiers in Neurology 03/2015; 6:36. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2015.00036
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ABSTRACT: The present study examined the effects of a Working Memory Training (WMT) in healthy elderly. Twenty participants comprised the final sample, eleven from the experimental group (WMT) and nine from the control group (socialization). Every subject underwent a neuropsychological evaluation pre and post-intervention. The meetings were held once a week, for three months. Results indicated that subjects in the experimental group improved cognitive functions related to concentrated attention, learning, short-term and episodic memory. Subjects in the control group also demonstrated, in a smaller number of variables, improvement in concentrated attention and episodic memory. WMT seems to have generated a transfer effect, especially to episodic memory, which is directly related to the subsystem of working memory (WM), suggesting that WMT may be useful in the context of the neuropsychology of aging.Psicologia Reflexão e Crítica 12/2012; 26(1):122-135. DOI:10.1590/S0102-79722013000100014 · 0.09 Impact Factor