Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with a variety of symptoms and functional deficits that result in a range of progressive impairments and handicap. Symptoms that contribute to loss of independence and restrictions in social activities lead to continuing decline in quality of life. Our aim is to give an updated overview on the management of symptoms and rehabilitation measures in MS. Appropriate use of these treatment options might help to reduce long-term consequences of MS in daily life. First, we review treatment of the main symptoms of MS: fatigue, bladder and bowel disturbances, sexual dysfunction, cognitive and affective disorders, and spasticity. Even though these symptomatic therapies have benefits, their use is limited by possible side-effects. Moreover, many common disabling symptoms, such as weakness, are not amenable to drug treatment. However, neurorehabilitation has been shown to ease the burden of these symptoms by improving self-performance and independence. Second, we discuss comprehensive multidisciplinary rehabilitation and specific treatment options. Even though rehabilitation has no direct influence on disease progression, studies to date have shown that this type of intervention improves personal activities and ability to participate in social activities, thereby improving quality of life. Treatment should be adapted depending on: the individual patient's needs, demands of their surrounding environment, type and degree of disability, and treatment goals. Improvement commonly persists for several months beyond the treatment period, mostly as a result of reconditioning and adaptation and appropriate use of medical and social support at home. These findings suggest that quality of life is determined by disability and handicap more than by functional deficits and disease progression.
"Patients experience myelin and axonal destruction in the brain and spinal cord which often leads to substantial disability . People who have MS can face numerous challenges including reduced social and vocational activity . Such losses may well contribute to the high rates of depression identified in this population  and suggest that psychological models are appropriate to the understanding and indeed the treatment of their affective disorders. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
. Hopelessness theory predicts that negative attributional style will interact with negative life events over time to predict depression. The intention of this study was to test this in a population who are at greater risk of negative life events, people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
. Data, including measures of attributional style, negative life events, and depressive symptoms, were collected via postal survey in 3 phases, each one a year apart.
. Responses were received from over 380 participants at each study phase. Negative attributional style was consistently able to predict future depressive symptoms at low to moderate levels of association; however, this ability was not sustained when depressive symptoms at Phase 1 were controlled for. No substantial evidence to support the hypothesised interaction of negative attributional style and negative life events was found.
. Findings were not supportive of the causal interaction proposed by the hopelessness theory of depression. Further work considering other time frames, using methods to prime attributional style before assessment and specifically assessing the hopelessness subtype of depression, may prove to be more fruitful. Intervention directly to address attributional style should also be considered.
"Therefore, treatment focuses on symptom management and the prevention of acute episodes and disability . Low-intensity rehabilitation improves quality of life, overall health, activity, and participation in social life  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) or stroke causes functional impairment which can have a major impact on patients’ life. Objectives. This RCT investigated the effect of a new nursing intervention (Mobility Enhancing Nursing Intervention—MFP) designed to improve rehabilitation outcomes. Method. The study took place in a rehabilitation clinic in Switzerland. One hundred forty participants diagnosed with MS, stroke, and brain injuries were randomly assigned to control group (CG = standard care) or intervention group (IG). The IG combined standard care with 30 days of MFB. MFP placed patients on a mattress on the floor and used tactile-kinaesthetic stimulation to increase spatial orientation and independency. Outcomes were functionality (Extended Barthel Index, EBI), quality of life (WHOQoL), and fall-related self-efficacy (FES-I). Results. There was a significant main effect of the intervention on functionality (EBI-diff/day mean = 0.30, versus mean = 0.16, ). There was also a significant main effect on QoL (WHOQoL-diff mean = 13.8, versus mean = 5.4, ). No significant effect was observed on fall-related self-efficacy. Conclusions. The positive effect of MFP on rehabilitation outcomes and quality of life suggests that this specialized nursing intervention could become an effective part of rehabilitation programs. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of St. Gallen (KEK-SG Nr. 09/021) and registered at ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02198599.
International Scholarly Research Notices 01/2015; 2015:1-6. DOI:10.1155/2015/785497
"Fatigue is one of the most common and devastating symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) with negative impacts extending from general functioning to quality of life [1–4]. Both the cause and consequences of MS fatigue are considered multidimensional [5, 6] and necessitate multidisciplinary treatment for successful symptom management . Clinical practice guidelines suggest medication (e.g., Amantadine and Modafinil) and rehabilitation (e.g., exercise, energy or fatigue self-management education, and cognitive behavioral therapy) for managing fatigue [6, 7]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatigue is a common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) with negative impacts extending from general functioning to quality of life. Both the cause and consequences of MS fatigue are considered multidimensional and necessitate multidisciplinary treatment for successful symptom management. Clinical practice guidelines suggest medication and rehabilitation for managing fatigue. This review summarized available research literature about three types of fatigue management interventions (exercise, education, and medication) to provide comprehensive perspective on treatment options and facilitate a comparison of their effectiveness. We researched PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL (August 2013). Search terms included multiple sclerosis, fatigue, energy conservation, Amantadine, Modafinil, and randomized controlled trial. The search identified 230 citations. After the full-text review, 18 rehabilitation and 7 pharmacological trials targeting fatigue were selected. Rehabilitation interventions appeared to have stronger and more significant effects on reducing the impact or severity of patient-reported fatigue compared to medication. Pharmacological agents, including fatigue medication, are important but often do not enable people with MS to cope with their existing disabilities. MS fatigue affects various components of one's health and wellbeing. People with MS experiencing fatigue and their healthcare providers should consider a full spectrum of effective fatigue management interventions, from exercise to educational strategies in conjunction with medication.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.