Parental perspectives on influenza immunization of children aged 6 to 23 months
ABSTRACT For the first time, in 2002, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices encouraged the vaccination of healthy children 6 to 23 months against influenza, whenever feasible. Participating inner-city health centers designed interventions to introduce influenza vaccination among this group of children. The study was designed to assess parents' attitudes toward the vaccine.
Following the 2002-2003 influenza vaccination season, parents were surveyed to identify barriers to and facilitators of influenza vaccination. A low-literacy level, 19-question survey was mailed to parents in three waves, 4 weeks apart. A subset of children had medical record data available to confirm vaccination status. Measures of validity were calculated. This paper focused only on the children whose parent-reported vaccination status was concordant with that reported in medical records (n = 193). Associations of responses to vaccination status were calculated in 2004, using chi-square and logistic regression procedures.
Sensitivity was 85.7% and specificity was 66% (kappa = 0.50), assessing the ability of parents to recall receipt or nonreceipt of influenza vaccine. The most important factors related to immunization of healthy infants were perceived doctor's recommendation (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4-12.3; p < 0.001) and belief that getting an influenza shot is a smart idea (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.3-8.9; p < 0.01) for those with medical record-confirmed vaccination status.
A clear message that the doctor recommends influenza vaccination for a child is an important factor for ensuring vaccination, and may foster the idea that vaccination is "smart."
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ABSTRACT: To determine the impact of a vaccination reminder in an electronic health record supplemented with data from an immunization information system (IIS). A noninterruptive influenza vaccination reminder, based on a real-time query of hospital and city IIS, was used at 4 urban, academically affiliated clinics serving a low-income population. Using a randomized cluster-crossover design, each study site had "on" and "off" period during the fall and winter of 2011-2012. Influenza vaccination during a clinic visit was assessed for 6-month to 17-year-old patients. To assess sustainability, the reminder was active at all sites during the 2012-2013 season. In the 2011-2012 season, 8481 unique non-up-to-date children had visits. Slightly more non-up-to-date children seen when the reminder was 'on' were vaccinated than when 'off' (76.2% vs 73.8%; P = .027). Effects were seen in the winter (67.9% vs 62.2%; P = .005), not fall (76.8% vs 76.5%). The reminder also increased documentation of the reason for vaccine non-administration (68.1% vs 41.5%; P < .0001). During the 2011-2012 season, the reminder displayed for 8630 unique visits, and clinicians interacted with it in 83.1% of cases where patients required vaccination. During the 2012-2013 season, it displayed for 22 248 unique visits; clinicians interacted with it in 84.8% of cases. An IIS-linked influenza vaccination reminder increased vaccination later in the winter when fewer vaccine doses are usually given. Although the reminder did not require clinicians to interact with it, they frequently did; utilization did not wane over time. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.Pediatrics 01/2015; 135(1):e75-82. DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-2616 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether provision of vaccine-health-literacy-promoting information in text message vaccine reminders improves receipt and timeliness of the second dose of influenza vaccine within a season for children in need of 2 doses. During the 2012-2013 season, families of eligible 6-month through 8-year-old children were recruited at the time of their first influenza vaccination from 3 community clinics in New York City. Children (n = 660) were randomly assigned to "educational" text message, "conventional" text message, and "written reminder-only" arms. At enrollment, all arms received a written reminder with next dose due date. Conventional messages included second dose due date and clinic walk-in hours. Educational messages added information regarding the need for a timely second dose. Receipt of second dose by April 30 was assessed by using χ(2) tests. Timeliness was assessed by receipt of second dose by 2 weeks after due date (day 42) using χ(2) and over time using a Kaplan-Meier analysis. Most families were Latino and publicly insured with no significant between-arm differences between groups. Children in the educational arm were more likely to receive a second dose by April 30 (72.7%) versus conventional (66.7%) versus written reminder-only arm (57.1%; P = .003). They also had more timely receipt by day 42 (P < .001) and over time (P < .001). In this low-income, urban, minority population, embedding health literacy information improved the effectiveness of text message reminders in promoting timely delivery of a second dose of influenza vaccine, compared with conventional text messages and written reminder only. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.Pediatrics 01/2015; 135(1):e83-91. DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-2475 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that certain children under 9 years of age receive two influenza vaccine doses in a season for optimal protection. Recent data indicate that many of these children fail to receive one or both of these needed doses. Contributing factors to under-vaccination of this population remain unclear. Caregivers of children aged 6 months-8 years requiring two influenza vaccine doses in the 2010-2011 season were identified from households enrolled in four urban Head Start programs. Recruitment and survey administration were conducted between March and June 2011. The impact of caregiver, provider, and practice-based factors on influenza vaccine receipt was assessed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Caregivers (n = 128) were predominantly mothers, Latina, Spanish-speaking, and non-U.S. born. Few children received one (31 %) or both (7 %) influenza vaccine doses. Caregivers who discussed influenza vaccination with providers were more likely to know their child needed two doses (55 vs. 35 %, p < 0.05) and have a fully vaccinated child (11 vs. 0 %, p < 0.05). Among caregivers whose child received the first dose, those who reported being told when to return for the second dose were also more likely to have a fully vaccinated child (35 vs. 0 %, p = 0.05). Belief in influenza vaccine effectiveness was positively associated with vaccination (p < 0.001), while safety concerns were negatively associated (p < 0.05). This study highlights the importance of provider-family communication about the two-dose regimen as well as influenza vaccine effectiveness and safety.Journal of Community Health 08/2014; 40(2). DOI:10.1007/s10900-014-9921-z · 1.28 Impact Factor