Transmission of occult hepatitis B virus by transfusion to adult and pediatric recipients in Taiwan.
ABSTRACT The infectivity of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV), defined as HBsAg-negative but HBV DNA-positive, after transfusion has been low but not negligible. To address this, we investigated the incidence of post-transfusion HBV infection after receiving screened blood units in Taiwan.
Consecutive HBV-naïve (anti-HBc-negative) recipients with normal ALT were followed for HBV DNA and serologic markers before and after transfusion. Among 4448 blood recipients, 467 (10.5%) were anti-HBc-negative. Post-transfusion 6-month follow-up was completed for 327. We identified 5 (1.5%) who developed hepatitis B viremia 1 week after transfusion. Three were children who later seroconverted to anti-HBc but with normal ALT indicating subclinical acute infection, despite all had anti-HBs from previous vaccination. One had transient transfusion-transmitted HBV without seroconversion to anti-HBc and one possibly had occult HBV infection. Our findings suggested the possibility that occult HBV infection was transmissible by transfusion. The incidence of post-transfusion acute HBV infection was 0.9% (100 per million units) in naïve recipients in Taiwan, a figure 7 approximately 40-fold higher than in developed countries. Moreover, some vaccinated children with anti-HBs were still susceptible.
Therefore, despite active immunization, sensitive screening assays for occult HBV infection such as nucleic acid amplification test could be considered in endemic areas.
Article: Occult hepatitis B virus infection.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) refers to the presence of HBV DNA in the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen. Since OBI was first described in the late 1970s, there has been increasing interest in this topic. The prevalence of OBI varies according to the different endemicity of HBV infection, cohort characteristics, and sensitivity and specificity of the methods used for detection. Although the exact mechanism of OBI has not been proved, intra-hepatic persistence of viral covalently closed circular DNA under the host's strong immune suppression of HBV replication and gene expression seems to be a cause. OBI has important clinical significance in several conditions. First, OBI can be transmitted through transfusion, organ transplantation including orthotopic liver transplantation, or hemodialysis. Donor screening before blood transfusion, prophylaxis for high-risk organ transplantation recipients, and dialysis-specific infection-control programs should be considered to reduce the risk of transmission. Second, OBI may reactivate and cause acute hepatitis in immunocompromised patients or those receiving chemotherapy. Close HBV DNA monitoring and timely antiviral treatment can prevent HBV reactivation and consequent clinical deterioration. Third, OBI may contribute to the progression of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease including hepatitis C. Finally, OBI seems to be a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma by its direct proto-oncogenic effect and by indirectly causing persistent hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, this needs further investigation. We review published reports in the literature to gain an overview of the status of OBI and emphasize the clinical importance of OBI.
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ABSTRACT: Studies on the prevalence of infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) among children are scarce in Latin American countries, especially in Mexico. This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV infection, occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) and HBV genotypes among children with clinical hepatitis. In total, 215 children with clinical hepatitis were evaluated for HBV infection. HBV serological markers and HBV DNA were analysed. OBI diagnosis and HBV genotyping was performed. HBV infection was found in 11.2% of children with clinical hepatitis. Among these HBV DNA positive-infected children, OBI was identified in 87.5% (n = 21/24) of the cases and 12.5% (n = 3/24) were positive for both HBV DNA and hepatitis B surface antigen. OBI was more frequent among children who had not been vaccinated against hepatitis B (p < 0.05) than in those who had been vaccinated. HBV genotype H was prevalent in 71% of the children followed by genotype G (8%) and genotype A (4%). In conclusion, OBI is common among Mexican children with clinical hepatitis and is associated with HBV genotype H. The results show the importance of the molecular diagnosis of HBV infection in Mexican paediatric patients with clinical hepatitis and emphasise the necessity of reinforcing hepatitis B vaccination in children.Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 08/2014; DOI:10.1590/0074-0276140058 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the incidence of de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after pediatric living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to analyze the risk factors associated with this de novo HBV infection.