Cancer in infants: a review of 82 cases.
ABSTRACT Cancer occurring in infants often has clinical and biological properties that are different from those of the same histologic type of cancer occurring in older children. The histologic distribution of cancers in infants and that in older children are also different. The aim of this study was to find these differences between infants and older children, and to compare the percent distribution of infant cancer subtypes with that reported by other countries. The authors collected infant cases diagnosed as having cancer from the database of the Cancer Registry in our Medical Center between 1995 and 2001. Subjects were selected subjects from inpatient logs, and their medical records were reviewed. Eighty-two infants (40 males and 42 females), including 12 neonates, were diagnosed with cancer over this 7-year period. Acute leukemia was diagnosed in 21 infants (25.6%; acute myeloid leukemia in 12, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in 9), retinoblastoma in 14 (17.1%), neuroblastoma in 12 (14.6%), brain tumor in 9 (11.0%), germ cell tumor in 8 (9.8%), renal cancer in 8 (Wilms tumor 3, mesoblastic nephroma 1, renal sarcoma 1, rhabdoid tumor 3), hepatoblastoma in 5 (6.1%), and soft tissue sarcoma in 5 (rhabdomyosarcoma 1, fibrosarcoma 3, other sarcoma 1). The overall disease-free survival rate was 61.0% (50/82) with a median follow-up duration of 6.8 years for the survivors. The 4 most common types of cancer occurring in infants are the same in the present series and in most larger childhood cancer series reported by other countries; but rank differently. In this study there were more infants with acute leukemia and retinoblastoma, and less with neuroblastoma. The prognosis is poor for infant leukemia and rhabdoid tumor, while it is good for embryonal tumors and germ cell tumors occurring in infancy.
Article: CXCR4 expression heterogeneity in neuroblastoma cells due to ligand-independent regulation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CXCR4, the receptor for the chemokine stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), has been shown to mediate many of the processes essential for cancer progression such as tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. To understand the role of CXCR4 in the biology of neuroblastoma, a disease that presents with wide spread metastases in over 50% of patients, we screened ten patient derived-neuroblastoma cell-lines for basal CXCR4 expression and sought to identify characteristics that correlate with tumor cell phenotype. All cell lines expressed CXCR4 mRNA at variable levels, that correlated well with three distinct classes of CXCR4 surface expression (low, moderate, or high) as defined by flow cytometry. Analysis of the kinetics of CXCR4 surface expression on moderate and high expressing cell lines showed a time-dependent down-regulation of the receptor that directly correlated with cell confluency, and was independent of SDF1. Cell lysates showed the presence of multiple CXCR4 isoforms with three major species of approximately 87, 67 and 55 kDa associating with high surface expression, and two distinct species of 45 and 38 kDa correlating with low to null surface expression. Western blot analysis of CXCR4 immunoprecipitates showed that the 87 and 67 kDa forms were ubiquitinated, while the others were not. Finally, treatment of cells with a proteasome inhibitor resulted in down regulation of CXCR4 surface expression. Taken together, these data show that regulation of CXCR4 surface expression in neuroblastoma cells can occur independently of SDF-1 contribution arguing against an autocrine mechanism. Additionally these data suggest that post-translational modifications of CXCR4, in part through direct ubiquitination, can influence trafficking of CXCR4 to the surface of neuroblastoma cells in a ligand-independent manner.Molecular Cancer 12/2009; 8:126. · 3.99 Impact Factor