Serological evidence of infection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia in domestic animals in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region area, China

Veterinary College, Xingjiang Agricultural University, Urumqui, China.
Veterinary Parasitology (Impact Factor: 2.46). 01/2006; 134(3-4):273-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2005.07.024
Source: PubMed


Serological methods were utilized to detect Anaplasma and Ehrlichia infection in domestic animals in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. By using an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), antibodies that reacted with Anaplasmaphagocytophilum and Ehrlichiachaffeensis were detected mainly in ruminants kept on pastureland in Altai, Ili and Kashgar area. Antibody titers up to 1:320 were recorded. These results indicate that ruminants kept in these areas may be infected with some species of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia.

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    • "A. phagocytophilum seroprevalence (67%) in the present study was higher than in previous surveys conducted in France (11.3%) [18], Spain (6.52%) [19], Italy (7.79, 16.89%, 17.03, 9%) [20-23], Sweden (16.7%) [24] and Denmark (22.3%) [25]. Other studies conducted in the US and Asia also revealed lower seroprevalence [26-29]. However, our result showed a significant seroprevalence difference between Arabian and Barb breeds. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anaplasma phagocytophilum , the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. We used direct and indirect methods to compare and evaluate exposure to A. phagocytophilum in horses in northern Tunisia. Serum from 60 horses was tested by IFA for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum , and whole blood was tested for A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene using a nested-PCR. To examine the risk of A. phagocytophilum transmission, 154 ticks that had been collected from horses were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by nested-PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene. This is the first time that A. phagocytophilum has been detected in horses in Tunisia, with an overall seroprevalence of 40/60 (67%). Six of the seroreactive samples (10%) had an IFA titer of 1:80, 14 (23%) of 1:160, 8 (13%) of 1:320 and 12 (20%) a titer 1 ≥ 640. The seroprevalence revealed no significant regional and sex differences. In contrast, a significant difference was observed between breeds. Eight (13%) of the horses were positive for A. phagocytophilum in the PCR, with no significant breed and age differences. Hyalomma marginatum was a predominant tick species (130/154), and 3 were infected by A. phagocytophilum (a prevalence of 2.3%). The concordance rate of A. phagocytophilum detection between IFA and PCR had a k value of -0.07. The results presented in this study suggest that horses infested by ticks in Tunisia are exposed to A. phagocytophilum.
    Parasites & Vectors 08/2012; 5(1):180. DOI:10.1186/1756-3305-5-180 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    • "Thus, A. phagocytophilum infection might not prevent the infection by A. marginale, but by reducing the parasitemia, it could also reduce the likelihood of transmission. There have been other reports of evidence of simultaneous infection with two or more species from the Anaplasma genus in ticks, deer and cattle in different areas of the world (Wen et al., 2002; Hofmann-Lehmann et al., 2004; Chahan et al., 2005; Kawahara et al., 2006; Jilintai et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma marginale, is an infectious but non-contagious disease. It is spread through tick bites or by the mechanical transfer of fresh blood from infected to susceptible cattle from biting flies or by blood-contaminated fomites including needles, ear tagging, dehorning and castration equipment. Transplacental transmission of A. marginale may contribute to the epidemiology of bovine anaplasmosis in some regions. Bovine anaplasmosis occurs in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Cattle of all ages are susceptible to infection with A. marginale, but the severity of disease increases with age. Once cattle of any age become infected with A. marginale, they remain persistently infected carriers for life. Diagnosis of bovine anaplasmosis can be made by demonstration of A. marginale on stained blood smears from clinically infected animals during the acute phase of the disease, but it is not reliable for detecting infection in pre-symptomatic or carrier animals. In these instances, the infection is generally diagnosed by serologic demonstration of antibodies with confirmation by molecular detection methods. The susceptibility of wild ruminants to infection by A. marginale and the role of wild ruminants in the epidemiology of bovine anaplasmosis are incompletely known owing to lack of published research, lack of validation of diagnostic tests for these species and cross-reaction of Anaplasma spp. antibodies in serologic tests. Control measures for bovine anaplasmosis vary with geographical location and include maintenance of Anaplasma-free herds, vector control, administration of antibiotics and vaccination.
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 10/2010; 58(1):1-30. DOI:10.1111/j.1865-1682.2010.01173.x · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species are tick-transmitted obligately intracellular bacteria that commonly cause disease in dogs worldwide. In addition to causing disease in canines, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are responsible for emerging and life-threatening human zoonoses in the United States. We previously reported a high prevalence of E. canis infection in Cameroonian dogs based on serologic and molecular evidence. This study was undertaken to determine the Ehrlichia species (E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii) present in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (n = 92) collected from those dogs (n = 51). Ehrlichial DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 28 (30%) unengorged R. sanguineus ticks attached to dogs. E. canis, the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, was detected in 19 (21%) ticks from 15 dogs, E. ewingii was detected in six (6%) ticks from 6 dogs, and E. chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, was detected in 4 (4%) ticks. Notably, 2 ticks were coinfected with E. chaffeensis and E. canis, one tick with E. canis and E. ewingii, and one tick with E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii. These findings further support our previous conclusion that multiple Ehrlichia species are present in Cameroon and identify R. sanguineus ticks primarily infected with E. canis, but suggest that they may be infected with and transmit other ehrlichial agents in Cameroon, potentially to humans.
    Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 02/2007; 7(2):221-7. DOI:10.1089/vbz.2006.0608 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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