帯広畜産大学学術情報リポジトリOAK:Obihiro university Archives of Knowledge
Serol ogi cal evi dence of i nfecti on of Anapl asm a
and Ehrl i chi a i n dom esti c ani m al s i n Xi nj i ang
Uygur Autonom ous Regi on area, Chi na
Chahan, Bayi n, J i an, Zi j i an, Xuan, Xuenan, Sato,
Yuki ta, Kabeya, H i denori , Tuchi ya, Kotaro,
Itam oto, Kazuhi to, O kuda, M asaru, M i kam i ,
Takeshi , M aruyam a, Soi chi , Inokum a, H i sashi
CitationVETERIN ARY PARASITO LO GY, 134(3-4): 273-278
URLhttp: //i r. obi hi ro. ac. j p/dspace/handl e/10322/742
Veterinary Parasitology Revised MS
25 July 2005
Serological Evidence of Infection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia
in Domestic Animals in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Area, China.
Bayin Chahan1), Zijian Jian1), Xuenan Xuan２), Yukita Sato３), Hidenori Kabeya３), Kotaro
Tuchiya４), Kazuhito Itamoto５), Masaru Okuda５), Takeshi Mikami3), Soichi Maruyama３),
1) Veterinary College, Xingjiang Agricultural University, Urumqui, China, 2) National
Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary
Medicine, Inada, Obihiro 080-8555 Japan, 3) College of Bioresource Science, Nihon
University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa 252-8510 Japan, 4) Nippon institute for Biological
Science, Ome, Tokyo 198-0024, Japan, 5) Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University,
1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi 753-8515 Japan, 6) Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro
University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Inada, Obihiro 080-8555 Japan
*: Corresponding to Hisashi INOKUMA,
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro University of Agriculture & Veterinary Medicine,
Inada, Obihiro 080-8555, Japan
TEL/FAX [+81]-155-495370, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Serological methods were utilized to detect Anaplasma and Ehrlichia infection in
domestic animals in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. By using an indirect
immunofluorescence assay, antibodies that reacted with A. phagocytophilum and E.
chaffeensis were detected mainly in ruminants kept on pastureland in Altai, Ili and Kashgar
area. Antibody titers up to 1:320 were recorded. These results indicate that ruminants kept
in these areas may be infected with some species of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia.
Keywords. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, domestic animals, seroepidemiology, Xinjiang Uygur
Autonomous Region, China
Ehrlichioses are important vector-borne diseases in both humans and animals. Both
Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. are known to be transmitted by arthropod ticks and are
distributed worldwide (Dumler et al., 1998). The genus Anaplasma includes A. marginale, A.
centrale, A. ovis, A. platys, A. phagocytophilum and some unidentified species closely related
to those pathogens. The genus Ehrlichia includes E. canis, E. ewingii, E. chaffeensis, E.
muris, E. ruminantium, and some additional new Ehrlichia species. A. phagocytophilum and
E. chaffeensis are two major zoonosis pathogens mainly reported in the United States and
European countries (Foley et al., 2004; Parola, 2004). A. phagocytophilum can cause
prevalent diseases in humans, ruminants and horses, and E. chaffeensis in both humans and
dogs. Recently, both agents have also been reported in eastern Asia, including China and
Korea (Cao et al., 2000; Cao et al., 2003; Kim et al., 2003). In China, DNA fragments of A.
phagocytophilum have been detected in Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Heilongjiang Province in
northeastern China (Cao et al., 2003). E. chaffeensis DNA were also detected by PCR from
Haemaphysalis yeni and Amblyomma testudinarium in southern China (Cao et al., 2000).
However, there has been little information available on ehrlichiosis in the western part of
China. Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is located in the western most area in China.
The region has a cold and dry climate with high mountains and wide deserts. The animal
grazing of ruminants on pastureland is one of the main industries of Xinjiang. Horses and
donkeys are also important animals for use in transportation in this area. Rickettsia sibilica
is the only known rickettsial pathogen that causes spotted fever in humans in Xinjiang (Ai et
al., 1979; Fan et al., 1987), but it is not clear whether other tick-borne rickettsial diseases exist.
The aim of this study was to determine whether pathogens of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia
distribute in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Thus the sero-prevalence of antibodies
against Anaplasma and Ehrlichia in domestic animals, including cattle, sheep, goats, horses
and donkeys in this area were screened by using indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) test for A.
phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1 Sera from animals
Sera were collected from 146 cattle, 134 sheep, 133 goats, 85 horses and 100
donkeys in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from April to August in 2004. Histories
and clinical symptoms of each animal were not recorded. Three areas, Altai, Ili and Kashgar,
were selected for the survey (Fig.1). Altai is situated in the northern part of Xinjiang, and is
bounded by Russia and the People's Republic of Mongolia. It is just south-west of the Altai
Mountains. Ili is situated at the north-west border of Xinjiang, and is bounded by the
Kazakhstan Republic, Russia. It is also north of the Tianshan Mountains. Kashgar is at the
west end of Xinjiang, bordering the Taklamakan desert in the east and the Kunlun Range in
the south. It is also the eastern neighbor of Kyrgys and Tajikistan. The numbers of sera
from each area and type of animal are shown in Table 1. Samples were stored at –20°C until
2.2. IFA test
Antigens for IFA test were kindly given by Dr. P. Brouqui (Unité des Rickettsies,
Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France). A. phagocytophilum (HGE agent Webster
strain, originally supplied by Dr. J. S. Dumler, The Johns Hopkins University School of
Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA) and E. chaffeensis (Arkansas strain, originally supplied by
Dr. J. E. Dawson, Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA) were used
as antigens in the IFA test as previously described (Brouqui et al., 1994). Sera from mice
that were experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis were used as