[Contrast media pressure injection using a portal catheter system--results of an in vitro study].
ABSTRACT Are implanted central venous port catheters suitable for contrast media pressure (power) injection in computed tomography?
In an in vitro study 100 ml of contrast medium (Ultravist 370, Schering, Berlin, Deutschland) was injected through 20 different port catheter systems using a power injector (Stellant, Medrad, Inianola, USA) with a pressure limit of 325 PSI. The injection rate was increased from 2 ml/s to 10 ml/s in increments of 2 ml/s. The maximum injection pressure and maximum injection rate were assessed.
An injection rate of 2 ml/s was possible in all catheter systems. Injection rates of 4 ml/s in 18 systems, 6 ml/s in 13 systems and 8 ml/s in 6 systems were achieved. With a given pressure limit of 325 PSI an injection rate of 10 ml/s was not possible in any of the port catheter systems. There were no catheter ruptures, catheter disconnections or contrast extravasations noted.
Power injection of contrast media with a pressure limit of 325 PSI seems to be tolerated by port catheter systems. Most of the evaluated port systems allow flow rates suitable for multislice computed tomography requiring rapid contrast injection.
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ABSTRACT: Modern examination protocols for computed tomography (CT) often require high injection rates of iodinated contrast media (CM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the maximum achievable flow rates and stability of different peripheral intravenous catheters (IVC) in vitro and to assess the feasibility of higher injection rates through small IVC in vivo. For in vitro experiments flow measurements followed by high pressure testing of different types of IVC (22, 20, and 18 gauge [G]) were performed. For the in vitro study 91 patients with already inserted 22 or 20G IVC who had been referred for CT received Iopamidol (300 mg iodine/ml) at flow rates between 2 and 5 ml/sec. Complications were documented. The maximal achievable flow rate of the tested IVC in vitro ranged from 5 to 8 ml/sec. No damage was observed during in vitro testing. The initially targeted in vivo flow rate was dropped in 33 of 91 (36 %) patients because the IVC could not be flushed adequately with saline before CM injection. Extravasation of CM occurred in 2 cases. In the remaining 58 patients the standard CT protocol was performed with flow rates of 3 ml/sec through 22G IVC and 5 ml/sec through 20G IVC, respectively. In this group, the extravasation of CM was observed twice (p > 0.05). Even with highly viscous CM, high flow rates can be applied in vitro in 22, 20, and 18G IVC without risking material damage. In vivo power injection of iodinated CM through 22G and 20G IVC seems to be safely achievable in the majority of patients with flow rates of up to 3 ml/sec and 5 ml/sec. Extravasation rates do not differ significantly between patients with high-flow or low-flow injections.RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 04/2009; 181(4):355-61. DOI:10.1055/s-0028-1109181 · 1.96 Impact Factor
- RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 07/2009; 181(07):664-668. DOI:10.1055/s-0028-1109345 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multilumen central venous catheters (CVCs) are not commonly used for power injection. However, in critically ill patients, CVCs-- most of which do not have FDA approval for power injection--may be the only available venous access. The pitfalls of multilumen CVCs are illustrated by a case report of a patient in whom extravasation of intravenously administered contrast medium occurred after power injection in a triple-lumen CVC using the lumen with the port furthest from the catheter tip. The underlying mechanisms for the displacement of the initially correctly placed right subclavian CVC could include elevation of both arms of the obese patient or the power injection itself. The distances between port openings and catheter tips of various commercially available multilumen CVCs are assessed. We examine the possible caveats of ECG-guided CVC placement for optimal tip position, discuss technical difficulties related to power injection via CVCs, and review commonly used drugs that may cause extravasation injury. Knowledge of the distances between CVC port openings and the catheter tip are essential for safe intravasal administration of fluids.RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 10/2009; 182(1):14-9. DOI:10.1055/s-0028-1109742 · 1.96 Impact Factor