The involvement of superoxide and iNOS-derived NO in cardiac dysfunction induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines.
ABSTRACT Pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to depress myocardial mechanical function by enhancing peroxynitrite generation in the heart. The contribution of NO synthesized by different NOS isoforms, as well as the contribution of superoxide to this mechanism are still not clear. Isolated working hearts of iNOS(-/-) and wildtype mice were perfused for 120 min in the presence or absence of a mixture of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma). iNOS mRNA was detected only in cytokine-treated wildtype hearts. In wildtype hearts, cytokine treatment significantly decreased cardiac work, calculated as cardiac output times peak systolic pressure, to 31+/-9% of original values by the end of perfusion (P <0.05). The decline of cardiac work induced by cytokine treatment was significantly reduced in iNOS(-/-) hearts (63+/-5% of original value). Only cytokine-treated wildtype hearts showed decreased aconitase activity, indicating a higher level of oxidative stress in these hearts. Cytokines increased NADPH oxidase activity in both wildtype and iNOS(-/-) hearts, whereas NADH oxidase and xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase activities were unaffected. The SOD mimetic MnTE2PyP prevented the cytokine-induced decline of cardiac work in both wildtype and iNOS(-/-) hearts. Cardiac p38 MAPK activation was unaltered in all experimental groups. Although genetic disruption of the iNOS gene provides partial protection against cytokine-induced cardiac dysfunction, iNOS-independent mechanisms, including contribution of NO from other NOS enzymes and the generation of superoxide, are also important contributors.
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ABSTRACT: Our goal herein has been to gain further insight into the parameters which control porphyrin therapeutic potential. Mn porphyrins (MnTnOct-2-PyP(5+), MnTnHexOE-2-PyP(5+), MnTE-2-PyPhP(5+), and MnTPhE-2-PyP(5+)) that bear the same positive charge and same number of carbon atoms at meso positions of porphyrin core were explored. The carbon atoms of their meso substituents are organized to form either linear or cyclic structures of vastly different redox properties, bulkiness, and lipophilicities. These Mn porphyrins were compared to frequently studied compounds, MnTE-2-PyP(5+), MnTE-3-PyP(5+), and MnTBAP(3-). All Mn(III) porphyrins (MnPs) have metal-centered reduction potential, E1/2 for Mn(III)P/Mn(II)P redox couple, ranging from -194 to +340 mV versus NHE, log kcat(O2(•-)) from 3.16 to 7.92, and log kred(ONOO(-)) from 5.02 to 7.53. The lipophilicity, expressed as partition between n-octanol and water, log POW, was in the range -1.67 to -7.67. The therapeutic potential of MnPs was assessed via: (i) in vitro ability to prevent spontaneous lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate as assessed by malondialdehyde levels; (ii) in vivo O2(•-) specific assay to measure the efficacy in protecting the aerobic growth of SOD-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae; and (iii) aqueous solution chemistry to measure the reactivity toward major in vivo endogenous antioxidant, ascorbate. Under the conditions of lipid peroxidation assay, the transport across the cellular membranes, and in turn shape and size of molecule, played no significant role. Those MnPs of E1/2 ∼ +300 mV were the most efficacious, significantly inhibiting lipid peroxidation in 0.5-10 μM range. At up to 200 μM, MnTBAP(3-) (E1/2 = -194 mV vs NHE) failed to inhibit lipid peroxidation, while MnTE-2-PyPhP(5+) with 129 mV more positive E1/2 (-65 mV vs NHE) was fully efficacious at 50 μM. The E1/2 of Mn(III)P/Mn(II)P redox couple is proportional to the log kcat(O2(•-)), i.e., the SOD-like activity of MnPs. It is further proportional to kred(ONOO(-)) and the ability of MnPs to prevent lipid peroxidation. In turn, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by MnPs is also proportional to their SOD-like activity. In an in vivo S. cerevisiae assay, however, while E1/2 predominates, lipophilicity significantly affects the efficacy of MnPs. MnPs of similar log POW and E1/2, that have linear alkyl or alkoxyalkyl pyridyl substituents, distribute more easily within a cell and in turn provide higher protection to S. cerevisiae in comparison to MnP with bulky cyclic substituents. The bell-shape curve, with MnTE-2-PyP(5+) exhibiting the highest ability to catalyze ascorbate oxidation, has been established and discussed. Our data support the notion that the SOD-like activity of MnPs parallels their therapeutic potential, though species other than O2(•-), such as peroxynitrite, H2O2, lipid reactive species, and cellular reductants, may be involved in their mode(s) of action(s).Inorganic Chemistry 10/2014; 53(21). DOI:10.1021/ic501329p · 4.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The defensive effects of hesperidin (HDN, a bioflavonoid) was investigated on gentamicin (GEN) provoked nephrotoxicity in rats. The expression patterns of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), kidney injury molecule (KIM-1), osteopontin, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) were assessed to comprehend the mechanism of action of hesperidin. GEN treated rats showed increased expressions of KIM-1, osteopontin, COX-2, Nrf2, NF-κB, TNF-α, iNOS, IL-6 and HSP-70 and decreased expression of HO-1. HDN along with GEN decreased the expressions of all indices excluding HO-1 and Nrf2 and an inverse correlation of expression was seen in between Nrf2 and NF-κB. Scavenging of free radicals, suppression of inflammation, upregulation of HO-1 by Nrf2 mediated antioxidant response element system (ARE) and facilitation of antioxidative system by HDN would be responsible to thwart GEN induced renal damage.Journal of Functional Foods 03/2015; 13. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2014.12.035 · 4.48 Impact Factor