Up-regulation in endothelin-1 by Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide interferes with gastric mucin synthesis via epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation
ABSTRACT Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a key mediator of inflammatory processes associated with bacterial infection, is a 21-amino acid peptide produced from a biologically inactive big ET-1 by the action of endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) that acts through G protein-coupled ET(A) and ET(B) receptors. Here we report on the role of ET-1 in the mediation of the detrimental influence of Helicobacter pylori on the synthesis of gastric mucin.
Rat gastric mucosal cells were exposed to H. pylori key virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
The LPS inhibitory effect on gastric mucin synthesis was accompanied by a marked increase in ET-1 generation and enhancement in ECE-1 activity. Inhibition of ECE-1 with phosphoramidon not only led to the impedance of LPS-induced ET-1 generation, but also countered the detrimental effect of LPS on mucin synthesis. Moreover, the LPS inhibitory effect on mucin synthesis was blocked by ET(A) receptor antagonist BQ610, but not by ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ788. Furthermore, the LPS-induced suppression in gastric mucin synthesis was countered in a concentration-dependent fashion by PD153035 (81.7%), a specific inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase as well as PP2 (69.8%), a selective inhibitor of tyrosine kinase Src responsible for ligand-independent EGFR transactivation.
Our findings are the first to show that the detrimental effect of H. pylori on gastric mucin synthesis is intimately linked to the events associated with ECE-1 up-regulation, enhancement in ET-1 production, and G protein-coupled ET(A) receptor activation that triggers the EGFR transactivation.
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ABSTRACT: Background: The mucin components of the gastric gel layer function as a protective and lubricating factor against luminal acid and proteolytic enzymes. Alteration of mucin expression in gastric preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions has suggested potential roles in neoplastic processes. This study aimed to assess the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of MUC-2, MUC-4 and MUC-5AC in Japanese gastric cancer. Methods: Expression of MUC-2, -4 and -5AC was evaluated on tissue microarrays of gastric carcinomas and adjacent non-cancerous mucosa specimens by immunohistochemistry and compared with clinicopathological parameters and survival time of the patients. Results: The three mucins were found to be expressed to a lesser extent in gastric carcinomas in comparison with non-cancerous mucosa (p<0.05). MUC-2 expression was negatively correlated with tumor size, depth of invasion, and TNM staging of gastric cancer (p<0.05), while that of MUC-5AC was negatively associated with the depth of invasion, venous invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM staging (p<0.05), but positively with MUC-4 and MUC-2 expression (p<0.05). There was higher MUC-2 expression in intestinal- than diffuse-type carcinomas (p<0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated no relationship between expression of the three mucins and the cumulative survival rate of patients, even stratified according to the depth of invasion (p>0.05). Conclusion: Down-regulated expression of MUC-2, -4 and -5AC may be involved in pathogenesis, invasion, metastasis or differentiation of gastric carcinoma. Their altered expression might therefore be employed as an indicator of pathobiological behavior.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 12/2012; 13(12):6447-53. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.12.6447 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Release of arachidonic acid from membrane glycerophospholipids by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is a key step in the generation of platelet-activating factor (PAF), recognized as the most proximal mediator of inflammatory events triggered by bacterial infection. Here, we report on the role of cPLA2 in the disturbances in gastric mucin synthesis evoked by the LPS of H. pylori, a bacterium identified as a primary cause of gastric disease. Using rat gastric mucosal cells, we show that H. pylori LPS detrimental effect on gastric mucin synthesis, associated with up-regulation in PAF and endothelin-1 (ET-1) generation, was subject to suppression by a specific inhibitor of cPLA2, MAFP. Moreover, the LPS-induced changes in mucin synthesis and ET-1 generation were countered by PAF receptor antagonist, BN52020. The impedance by PAF antagonist of the LPS-induced reduction in mucin synthesis was countered by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3K, as well as by ERK inhibitor, PD98059. The blockade of ERK caused also inhibition of the LPS-induced cPLA2 activation and amplification in the impedance capacity of PAF antagonist on the LPS-induced ET-1 generation, while the inhibitor of PI3K had no effect. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that the detrimental consequences of H. pylori LPS on gastric mucin synthesis involve ERK-dependent cPLA2 activation that leads to up-regulation in PAF generation and ET-1 production.International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 05/2006; 58(4):217-23. DOI:10.1080/15216540600732021 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many investigators have demonstrated alteration of gastric mucins in H. pylori infected individuals. The inflammatory environment induced by H. pylori leading to aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 and demasking of core peptide MUC1 epitope could enhance immune responses to MUC1. IgG and IgM immune response to MUC1 in patients with gastric cancer (n = 214) chronic gastroduodenal diseases (n = 160) and healthy blood donors (n = 91) was studied with ELISA using bovine serum albumin-MUC1 60-mer peptide as antigen. H. pylori serologic status was evaluated with ELISA and CagA status by immunoblotting. Gastric mucosa histology was scored according to the Sydney system. Compared to H. pylori seronegative individuals, higher levels of IgG antibody to MUC1 were found in H. pylori seropositive patients with benign gastric diseases (p < 0.01) and blood donors (p < 0.03). Higher MUC1 IgG antibody levels were associated with a higher degree of gastric corpus mucosa inflammation in patients with chronic gastroduodenal diseases (p < 0.0025). There was a positive correlation between the levels of anti-H. pylori IgG and MUC1 IgG antibody levels in blood donors (p = 0.03), and in patients with benign diseases (p < 0.0001). In patients with gastric cancer (n = 214) a significantly higher level of anti-MUC1 IgG than in blood donors was observed (p < 0.001) irrespective of H. pylori status or stage of cancer. MUC1 IgM antibody levels were not related to the H. pylori serology. IgG immune response to tumor-associated MUC1 is up regulated in H. pylori infected individuals. This increase is associated with a higher IgG immune response to H. pylori and with a higher degree of gastric mucosa inflammation. High levels of MUC1 IgG antibody irrespective of H. pylori serologic status characterized patients with gastric cancer. The findings suggest that, in some individuals, the H. pylori infection may stimulate immune response to tumor-associated MUC1 peptide antigen thus modulating tumor immunity.Immunological investigations 01/2007; 36(4):371-86. DOI:10.1080/08820130601109727 · 1.90 Impact Factor