Up-regulation in endothelin-1 by Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide interferes with gastric mucin synthesis via epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation.
ABSTRACT Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a key mediator of inflammatory processes associated with bacterial infection, is a 21-amino acid peptide produced from a biologically inactive big ET-1 by the action of endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) that acts through G protein-coupled ET(A) and ET(B) receptors. Here we report on the role of ET-1 in the mediation of the detrimental influence of Helicobacter pylori on the synthesis of gastric mucin.
Rat gastric mucosal cells were exposed to H. pylori key virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
The LPS inhibitory effect on gastric mucin synthesis was accompanied by a marked increase in ET-1 generation and enhancement in ECE-1 activity. Inhibition of ECE-1 with phosphoramidon not only led to the impedance of LPS-induced ET-1 generation, but also countered the detrimental effect of LPS on mucin synthesis. Moreover, the LPS inhibitory effect on mucin synthesis was blocked by ET(A) receptor antagonist BQ610, but not by ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ788. Furthermore, the LPS-induced suppression in gastric mucin synthesis was countered in a concentration-dependent fashion by PD153035 (81.7%), a specific inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase as well as PP2 (69.8%), a selective inhibitor of tyrosine kinase Src responsible for ligand-independent EGFR transactivation.
Our findings are the first to show that the detrimental effect of H. pylori on gastric mucin synthesis is intimately linked to the events associated with ECE-1 up-regulation, enhancement in ET-1 production, and G protein-coupled ET(A) receptor activation that triggers the EGFR transactivation.
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Article: Seven-transmembrane receptors.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Seven-transmembrane receptors, which constitute the largest, most ubiquitous and most versatile family of membrane receptors, are also the most common target of therapeutic drugs. Recent findings indicate that the classical models of G-protein coupling and activation of second-messenger-generating enzymes do not fully explain their remarkably diverse biological actions.Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 10/2002; 3(9):639-50. · 37.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The insulin and the endothelin type A (ETA) receptor both can couple into the heterotrimeric G protein alpha(q/11) (Galpha(q/11)), leading to Galpha(q/11) tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation, and subsequent stimulation of glucose transport. In this study, we assessed the potential role of Src kinase in ET-1 signaling to glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Src kinase inhibitor PP2 blocked ET-1-induced Src kinase activity, Galpha(q/11) tyrosine phosphorylation, and glucose transport stimulation. To determine which Src family kinase member was involved, we microinjected anti-c-Src, -c-Fyn, or -c-Yes antibody into these cells and found that only anti-c-Yes antibody blocked GLUT4 translocation (70% decreased). Overexpression or microinjection of a dominant negative mutant (K298M) of Src kinase also inhibited ET-1-induced Galpha(q/11) tyrosine phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation. In co-immunoprecipitation experiments, we found that beta-arrestin 1 associated with the ETA receptor in an agonist-dependent manner and that beta-arrestin 1 recruited Src kinase to a molecular complex that included the ETA receptor. Microinjection of beta-arrestin 1 antibody inhibited ET-1- but not insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. In conclusion, 1) the Src kinase Yes can induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Galpha(q/11) in response to ET-1 stimulation, and 2) beta-arrestin 1 and Src kinase form a molecular complex with the ETA receptor to mediate ET-1 signaling to Galpha(q/11) with subsequent glucose transport stimulation.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2001; 276(47):43663-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori colonization leads to epithelial cell hyperproliferation within inflamed mucosa, but levels of apoptosis vary, suggesting that imbalances between rates of cell production and loss may contribute to differences in gastric cancer risk among infected populations. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) regulates inflammatory and growth responses of intestinal epithelial cells. We determined whether activation of PPARgamma modified H. pylori-induced apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells. PPARgamma was expressed and functionally active in gastric epithelial cell lines sensitive to H. pylori-induced apoptosis. PPARgamma ligands 15d-PGJ(2) and BRL-49653 significantly attenuated H. pylomicronri-induced apoptosis, effects that could be reversed by co-treatment with a specific PPARgamma antagonist. Cyclopentanone prostaglandins that do not bind and activate PPARgamma had no effects on H. pylori-induced apoptosis. The ability of H. pylori to activate nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and increase levels of the NF-kappaB target IL-8 was blocked by co-treatment with PPARgamma agonists, and direct inhibition of NF-kappaB also abolished H. pylori-stimulated apoptosis. These results suggest that activation of the PPARgamma pathway attenuates the ability of H. pylori to induce NF-kappaB-mediated apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells. Because PPARgamma regulates a multitude of host responses, activation of this receptor may contribute to varying levels of cellular turnover as well as the diverse pathologic outcomes associated with chronic H. pylori colonization.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2001; 276(33):31059-66. · 4.65 Impact Factor