The Gender Similarities Hypothesis.
ABSTRACT The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships.
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ABSTRACT: This study was designed to test the extent to which depressive symptoms are associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and each of its components, and whether these relationships are gender dependent. Participants were apparently healthy employed men (N=2,355) and women (N=1,525) who underwent a routine health check between the years 2003 and 2005. We used logistic regression analysis, predicting the MS by depressive symptoms, as assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the following control variables: age, education, smoking status, physical exercise, anxiety, and burnout. As hypothesized, we found that depression among women, but not men, was associated with a 1.94-fold risk of having the MS, and with an elevated risk of having two of its five components: elevated waist circumference (odds ratio, OR=2.23) and elevated glucose levels (OR=2.44). In addition, a positive trend was observed toward an association with the other three components: low high-density lipoprotein, hypertension, and elevated triglycerides. Among men depression was associated with elevated waist circumference only (OR=1.77). These findings suggest that especially among women, the association between depression and cardiovascular diseases might be linked to metabolic processes. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings may have important health-care policy implications with regard to depression management interventions.Depression and Anxiety 08/2008; 25(8):661-9. DOI:10.1002/da.20379 · 4.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Feminist psychologists have long posited that relationship authenticity (i.e., the congruence between what one thinks and feels and what one does and says in relational contexts) is integral to self-esteem and well-being. Guided by a feminist developmental framework, the authors investigated the role of relationship authenticity in promoting girls' self-esteem over the course of adolescence. Latent growth curve modeling was used to test the association between relationship authenticity and self-esteem with data from a 5-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of 183 adolescent girls. Results revealed that both relationship authenticity and self-esteem increased steadily in a linear fashion from the 8th to the 12th grade. Girls who scored high on the measure of relationship authenticity in the 8th grade experienced greater increases in self-esteem over the course of adolescence than girls who scored low on relationship authenticity. Further, girls who increased in authenticity also tended to increase in self-esteem over the course of adolescence. The importance of a feminist developmental framework for identifying and understanding salient dimensions of female adolescence is discussed.Developmental Psychology 06/2008; 44(3):722-33. DOI:10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1682 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, the authors investigated what prosocial-assertive, passive, and coercive strategies 6-year-olds (N=257) would propose in response to stories about 2 socially challenging situations: displacing another child in a game and obtaining a toy from another child. The scenarios also varied the gender composition of the characters. Participants' verbalizations while acting out their responses using toy props fell into 13 categories of strategies. Teachers reported antisocial behavior and social competence of the participants. Girls and boys responded similarly in their general suggestions of prosocial or assertive strategies, but girls were more likely to offer prosocial strategies with other girls than with boys. Teacher-rated competence and antisocial behavior interacted in predicting coercive responses by girls but not by boys. The results demonstrate that prosocial and antisocial behaviors need to be considered in interaction to fully understand the nature of social competence.The Journal of Genetic Psychology 04/2008; 169(1):92-112. DOI:10.3200/GNTP.169.1.92-112 · 0.65 Impact Factor