vlf-1 deletion brought AcMNPV to defect in nucleocapsid formation.
ABSTRACT Recent studies have provided direct evidence that the baculovirus very late factor 1 (VLF-I) of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) was essential for BV production. To elucidate how vlf-1 deletion blocks BV production we generated a vlf-1 knockout bacmid by ET-recombination technology on AcMNPV bacmid propagated in Escherichia coli. Bacmid DNA transfection and supernatant passage assay revealed that the vlf-1 knockout bacmid was unable to replicate in cell culture, while vlf-1 repair bacmid, which was generated by transposition of the vlf-1 ORF under control of its native promoter into polyhedrin gene locus of vlf-1 knockout bacmid, resumed viral replication ability at wildtype levels. Results of these assays proved the correct construction of the vlf-1 knockout bacmid. Subsequent electron microscopy revealed that the vlf-1 knockout bacmid failed to form nueleocapsid in the nuclei of the transfected cells. Instead, intensely electron-dense virogenic stroma characteristic of viral DNA synthesis were observed. Thus, it is demonstrated for the first time that vlf-1 knockout blocked nucleocapsid formation and the defective nucleocapsid formation resulted in the abolishment of BV and ODV production. Possible roles of vlf-1 in genome processing are suggested and discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf53 (ac53) is a highly conserved gene existing in all sequenced Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera baculoviruses, but its function remains unknown. To investigate its role in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac53 deletion virus (vAc(ac53KO-PH-GFP)) was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Fluorescence and light microscopy and titration analysis revealed that vAc(ac53KO-PH-GFP) could not produce infectious budded virus in infected Sf9 cells. Real-time PCR demonstrated that the ac53 deletion did not affect the levels of viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that many lucent tubular shells devoid of the nucleoprotein core are present in the virogenic stroma and ring zone, indicating that the ac53 knockout affected nucleocapsid assembly. With a recombinant virus expressing an Ac53-GFP fusion protein, we observed that Ac53 was distributed within the cytoplasm and nucleus at 24 h post-infection, but afterwards accumulated predominantly near the nucleus-cytoplasm boundary. These data demonstrate that ac53 is involved in nucleocapsid assembly and is an essential gene for virus production.Virology 11/2008; 382(1):59-68. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Autographa californica multiple capsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) was the first baculovirus for which the complete nucleotide sequence became known. Since then 15 years lapsed and much research has been performed to elucidate putative functions of the annotated open reading frames of this virus and this endeavour is still ongoing. AcMNPV is the most well-known and well-studied baculovirus species, not in the least for its application as a vector for the high-level expression of foreign genes in insect cells. This article is the first monograph of a single baculovirus and gives a current overview of what is known about the 151 AcMNPV ORFs, including (putative) function and temporal and spatial presence of transcripts and protein. To date 60 ORFs have a proven function, another 19 ORFs have homologs for which functions are known in other baculoviruses and 72 ORFs are still enigmatic. This paper should assist the reader in quickly finding the essentials of AcMNPV.Virologica Sinica 01/2009; 24(5):359-414.
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ABSTRACT: BmNPV bacmid constructed recently and Red recombinant system were used to rapidly disrupted Bombyx monri nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf60 in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BW25113. BmNPV bacmid isolated from E. coli BmDH10Bac was electroporated into E. coli BW25113, which harbors plasmid pKD46 encoding lamda Red recombinase,to produce E. coli BW25113-Bac, which could be used for gene deletion of BmNPV. A linear fragment was amplified by PCR from plasmid pKD3 (containing a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene cat) using a pair of primers with length of 63bp,which had 45 bp homologous to the orf60 gene and 18bp homologous to cat sequences. The linear fragment was electroporated into E. coli BW25113-Bac and homologous recombination occurred between the linear fragment and orf60 with the help of lamda Red recombinase. Three specific primer pairs were used to confirm the replacement of orf60 by cat gene. Western blot analysis showed that orf60 was not expressed in BmN cells infected with knockout bacmid.Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology 10/2007; 23(5):801-5.