vlf-1 deletion brought AcMNPV to defect in nucleocapsid formation.
ABSTRACT Recent studies have provided direct evidence that the baculovirus very late factor 1 (VLF-I) of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) was essential for BV production. To elucidate how vlf-1 deletion blocks BV production we generated a vlf-1 knockout bacmid by ET-recombination technology on AcMNPV bacmid propagated in Escherichia coli. Bacmid DNA transfection and supernatant passage assay revealed that the vlf-1 knockout bacmid was unable to replicate in cell culture, while vlf-1 repair bacmid, which was generated by transposition of the vlf-1 ORF under control of its native promoter into polyhedrin gene locus of vlf-1 knockout bacmid, resumed viral replication ability at wildtype levels. Results of these assays proved the correct construction of the vlf-1 knockout bacmid. Subsequent electron microscopy revealed that the vlf-1 knockout bacmid failed to form nueleocapsid in the nuclei of the transfected cells. Instead, intensely electron-dense virogenic stroma characteristic of viral DNA synthesis were observed. Thus, it is demonstrated for the first time that vlf-1 knockout blocked nucleocapsid formation and the defective nucleocapsid formation resulted in the abolishment of BV and ODV production. Possible roles of vlf-1 in genome processing are suggested and discussed.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf79 (ac79) gene is a conserved gene in baculoviruses and shares homology with genes in ascoviruses, iridoviruses, and several bacteria. Ac79 has a conserved motif and structural similarities to UvrC and intron-encoded endonucleases. Ac79 is produced at early times during infection and concentrates in the nucleus of infected cells at late times, suggesting a cellular compartment-specific function. To investigate its function, an ac79-knockout bacmid was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Titration assays showed that budded virus (BV) production was reduced in the ac79-knockout virus compared to control viruses, following either virus infection or the transfection of bacmid DNA. The ac79-knockout virus-infected cells produced plaques smaller than those infected with control ac79-carrying viruses. No obvious differences were observed in viral DNA synthesis, viral protein accumulation, or the formation of occlusion bodies in ac79-knockout and control viral DNA-transfected cells, indicating progression into the late and very late phases of viral infection. However, comparative analyses of the amounts of BV genomic DNA and structural proteins in a given quantity of infectious virions suggested that the ac79-knockout virus produced more noninfectious BV in infected cells than the control virus. The structure of the ac79-knockout BV determined by transmission electron microscopy appeared to be similar to that of the control virus, although aberrant capsid protein-containing tubular structures were observed in the nuclei of ac79-knockout virus-infected cells. Tubular structures were not observed for ac79 viruses with mutations in conserved endonuclease residues. These results indicate that Ac79 is required for efficient BV production.Journal of Virology 03/2012; 86(10):5614-25. · 5.08 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A protamine-like protein named P6.9 is thought to play a role in the condensation of genomes of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) during an infection. Previous studies have shown that P6.9 is phosphorylated immediately upon synthesis and dephosphorylated upon the entry of the P6.9-DNA complex into the capsid. Here, we investigate the dynamic distribution of P6.9 in AcMNPV-infected Spodoptera frugiperda cells using an influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged P6.9. Although a portion of P6.9-HA localized to the virogenic stroma, which is the center of viral DNA replication, transcription, and nucleocapsid assembly, the majority of P6.9-HA was distributed near the inner nuclear membrane throughout the course of infection. Antiserum against P6.9 detected specific phosphorylated forms of P6.9 at the edge of, but not within, the electron-dense matte regions of the virogenic stroma. Further analysis using immunoblotting revealed that at least 11 different phosphorylated forms of P6.9, as well as dephosphorylated P6.9, were present in association with occlusion-derived virions, although only dephosphorylated P6.9 was associated with budded virions.Journal of Virology 09/2012; 86(22):12217-27. · 5.08 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ac34 and its homologs are highly conserved in all sequenced alphabaculoviruses. In this paper, we show that ac34 transcripts were detected from 6 to 48 h postinfection (p.i.) in Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV)-infected Sf9 cells. Ac34 localized to both the cytoplasm and the nuclei of infected cells but was not a viral structural protein. To determine the function of ac34 in the viral life cycle, an ac34 knockout AcMNPV (vAc34KO) was constructed. Compared with wild-type and repair viruses, vAc34KO exhibited an approximately 100-fold reduction in infectious virus production. Further investigations showed that the ac34 deletion did not affect the replication of viral DNA, polyhedron formation, or nucleocapsid assembly but delayed the expression of late genes, such as vp39, 38k, and p6.9. Bioassays revealed that vAc34KO was unable to establish a fatal infection in Trichoplusia ni larvae via per os inoculation. Few infectious progeny viruses were detected in the hemolymph of the infected larvae, indicating that the replication of vAc34KO was attenuated. These results suggest that Ac34 is an activator protein that promotes late gene expression and is essential for the pathogenicity of AcMNPV.Journal of Virology 07/2012; 86(19):10432-43. · 5.08 Impact Factor