Children in adoptive families: overview and update.
ABSTRACT To summarize the past 10 years of published research concerning the 2% of American children younger than 18 years old who are adoptees.
Review recent literature on developmental influences, placement outcome, psychopathology, and treatment.
Adoption carries developmental opportunities and risks. Many adoptees have remarkably good outcomes, but some subgroups have difficulties. Traditional infant, international, and transracial adoptions may complicate adoptees' identity formation. Those placed after infancy may have developmental delays, attachment disturbances, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Useful interventions include preventive counseling to foster attachment, postadoption supports, focused groups for parents and adoptees, and psychotherapy.
Variables specific to adoption affect an adopted child's developmental trajectory. Externalizing, internalizing, attachment, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms may arise. Child and adolescent psychiatrists can assist both adoptive parents and children.
- SourceAvailable from: familiesinsociety.orgFamilies in society: the journal of contemporary human services 01/2011; 92(3). DOI:10.1606/1044-3894.4136 · 0.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The authors examined preadoptive factors as predictors of relationship quality (love, ambivalence, and conflict) among 125 couples (44 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 51 heterosexual couples) across the 1st year of adoptive parenthood. On average, all new parents experienced declines in their relationship quality across the 1st year of parenthood regardless of sexual orientation, with women experiencing steeper declines in love. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of avoidant coping, lower levels of relationship maintenance behaviors, and less satisfaction with their adoption agencies reported lower relationship quality at the time of the adoption. The effect of avoidant coping on relationship quality varied by gender. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of confrontative coping, and higher levels of relationship maintenance behaviors reported greater declines in relationship quality. These findings have implications for professionals who work with adoptive parents both pre- and postadoption.Journal of Family Psychology 06/2010; 24(3):221-32. DOI:10.1037/a0019615 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adopted children are hypothesized to be at risk of insecure attachment relationships because of their background of institutional care, maltreatment and neglect. We conducted two series of meta-analyses, one using only observational assessments of attachment and one using both observational and self-report assessments. Observational assessments showed that children who were adopted before 12 months of age were as securely attached as their non-adopted peers, whereas children adopted after their first birthday showed less attachment security than non-adopted children (d = 0.80, CI = 0.49–1.12). Regarding the overall effect for attachment security, adoptees were comparable to foster children. Adopted children showed more disorganized attachments compared to their non-adopted peers (trimmed d = 0.36, CI = 0.04–0.68), but again were comparable to foster children (trimmed d = 0.35, CI = 0.02–0.67). Compared to institutionalized children, adoptees were less often disorganized attached. When self-report measures of attachment were included no difference was found between adoptees and their non-adopted counterparts (trimmed d = 0.12, CI = − 0.02–0.26, 39 studies, N = 2912 adopted children). Compared to institutionalized children, (early) adoption proves to be an effective intervention in the domain of attachment.Children and Youth Services Review 03/2009; DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2008.09.008 · 1.27 Impact Factor