Congenital vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiency: a case report.
ABSTRACT Congenital vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiency is a very rare bleeding disorder, which usually presents with episodes of intracerebral bleed in the first few weeks of life, sometimes leading to a fatal outcome. We report a case of combined factor deficiency of vitamin K-dependent factors in which the patient presented with both intracerebral bleeding, and possibly also thrombosis, and responded to a vitamin K supplement along with fresh frozen plasma.
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ABSTRACT: Combined deficiency of the vitamin K-dependent clotting factors (VKCFD) is a rare bleeding disorder involving defective gamma-carboxylation of coagulation factors II , VII, IX and X as well as natural anticoagulants protein C and protein S. The disease is characterized by a cluster of different, often life threatening, bleeding symptoms occurring both spontaneously and in a surgical setting. In the present paper we describe two different treatment modalities to be used both in a programmed surgical procedure and in an emergency scenario. As this disease is a natural model that resembles oral anticoagulation, our experience discloses a possible rationale in the use of recombinant activated FVII for warfarin reversal.Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis 02/2009; 16(2):221-3. · 1.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Combined deficiency of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX and X (and proteins C, S, and Z) is usually an acquired clinical problem, often resulting from liver disease, malabsorption, or warfarin overdose. A rare inherited form of defective gamma-carboxylation resulting in early onset of bleeding was first described by McMillan and Roberts in 1966 and subsequently has been termed 'vitamin K-dependent clotting factor deficiency' (VKCFD). Biochemical and molecular studies identify two variants of this autosomal recessive disorder: VKCFD1, which is associated with point mutations in the gamma-glutamylcarboxylase gene (GGCX), and VKCFD2, which results from point mutations in the vitamin K epoxide reductase gene (VKOR). Bleeding ranges in severity from mild to severe. Therapy includes high oral doses of vitamin K for prophylaxis, usually resulting in partial correction of factor deficiency, and episodic use of plasma infusions or prothrombin complex concentrate. Recent molecular studies have the potential to further our understanding of vitamin K metabolism, gamma-carboxylation, and the functional role this post-translational modification has for other proteins. The results may also provide potential targets for molecular therapeutics and pharmacogenetics.Haemophilia 12/2008; 14(6):1209-13. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hereditary combined vitamin K-dependent clotting factors deficiency (VKCFD) is a rare congenital bleeding disorder resulting from variably decreased levels of coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X as well as natural anticoagulants protein C, protein S and protein Z. The spectrum of bleeding symptoms ranges from mild to severe with onset in the neonatal period in severe cases. The bleeding symptoms are often life-threatening, occur both spontaneously and in a surgical setting, and usually involve the skin and mucosae. A range of non-haemostatic symptoms are often present, including developmental and skeletal anomalies. VKCFD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes of either gamma-glutamyl carboxylase or vitamin K2,3-epoxide reductase complex. These two proteins are necessary for gamma-carboxylation, a post-synthetic modification that allows coagulation proteins to display their proper function. The developmental and skeletal anomalies seen in VKCFD are the result of defective gamma-carboxylation of a number of non-haemostatic proteins. Diagnostic differentiation from other conditions, both congenital and acquired, is mandatory and genotype analysis is needed to confirm the defect. Vitamin K administration is the mainstay of therapy in VKCFD, with plasma supplementation during surgery or severe bleeding episodes. In addition, prothrombin complex concentrates and combination therapy with recombinant activated FVII and vitamin K supplementation may constitute alternative treatment options. The overall prognosis is good and with the availability of several effective therapeutic options, VKCFD has only a small impact on the quality of life of affected patients.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 01/2010; 5:21. · 4.32 Impact Factor