Congenital vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiency: a case report.
ABSTRACT Congenital vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiency is a very rare bleeding disorder, which usually presents with episodes of intracerebral bleed in the first few weeks of life, sometimes leading to a fatal outcome. We report a case of combined factor deficiency of vitamin K-dependent factors in which the patient presented with both intracerebral bleeding, and possibly also thrombosis, and responded to a vitamin K supplement along with fresh frozen plasma.
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ABSTRACT: Hereditary combined deficiency of the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors II, VII, IX, X, protein C, S and protein Z (VKCFD) is a very rare autosomal recessive inherited bleeding disorder. The phenotype may result from functional deficiency of either the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) or the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) complex. We report on the third case of VKCFD1 with mutations in the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase gene, which is remarkable because of compound heterozygosity. Two mutations were identified: a splice site mutation of exon 3 and a point mutation in exon 11, resulting in the replacement of arginine 485 by proline. Screening of 100 unrelated normal chromosomes by restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis excluded either mutation as a frequent polymorphism. Substitution of vitamin K could only partially normalize the levels of coagulation factors. It is suggested that the missense mutation affects either the propeptide binding site or the vitamin K binding site of GGCX.British Journal of Haematology 09/2004; 126(4):546-9. · 4.94 Impact Factor
Article: Four factor deficiency.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Four factor deficiency is variably associated with mild to fatal bleeding. We describe a 3-month-old boy, born of consanguineous parents, who presented with a right subdural haematoma and a clotting screen showing a prothrombin time (PT) > 100 s, an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) > 150 s, a fibrinogen of 0.4 g/l, and fibrinogen degradation products < 1 microg/ml. He was given 300 U of factor IX concentrate (containing factors II and X) and 1 mg of vitamin K intravenously. Forty-five minutes later, clotting tests showed a PT of 24 s, an aPTT of 31 s and a fibrinogen of 2.6 g/l. The patient was found to be deficient in all the vitamin K-dependent factors: factors II, VII, IX and X, protein C and protein S. A 14-base deletion was found in intron 1 (bases 1056-1069) of the gamma-carboxylase gene. The patient and his elder sister were homozygous for this deletion, whereas both parents were heterozygous. The deletion destroys a reverse palindromic sequence (TTGAGGCAA) of the type often associated with cis-acting elements. Our results suggest that this element may be involved in the regulation of gamma-carboxylase expression. Expression studies are being completed so that this region can be definitively ascribed as a cis-acting element involved in gene regulation.Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 06/2003; 14 Suppl 1:S55-7. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) is the target of warfarin, the most widely prescribed anticoagulant for thromboembolic disorders. Although estimated to prevent twenty strokes per induced bleeding episode, warfarin is under-used because of the difficulty of controlling dosage and the fear of inducing bleeding. Although identified in 1974 (ref. 2), the enzyme has yet to be purified or its gene identified. A positional cloning approach has become possible after the mapping of warfarin resistance to rat chromosome 1 (ref. 3) and of vitamin K-dependent protein deficiencies to the syntenic region of human chromosome 16 (ref. 4). Localization of VKOR to 190 genes within human chromosome 16p12-q21 narrowed the search to 13 genes encoding candidate transmembrane proteins, and we used short interfering RNA (siRNA) pools against individual genes to test their ability to inhibit VKOR activity in human cells. Here, we report the identification of the gene for VKOR based on specific inhibition of VKOR activity by a single siRNA pool. We confirmed that MGC11276 messenger RNA encodes VKOR through its expression in insect cells and sensitivity to warfarin. The expressed enzyme is 163 amino acids long, with at least one transmembrane domain. Identification of the VKOR gene extends our understanding of blood clotting, and should facilitate development of new anticoagulant drugs.Nature 03/2004; 427(6974):541-4. · 38.60 Impact Factor