Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) modulates amyloid precursor protein cleavage and reduces cerebral amyloidosis in Alzheimer transgenic mice.
ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder pathologically characterized by deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides as senile plaques in the brain. Recent studies suggest that green tea flavonoids may be used for the prevention and treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we report that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main polyphenolic constituent of green tea, reduces Abeta generation in both murine neuron-like cells (N2a) transfected with the human "Swedish" mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and in primary neurons derived from Swedish mutant APP-overexpressing mice (Tg APPsw line 2576). In concert with these observations, we find that EGCG markedly promotes cleavage of the alpha-C-terminal fragment of APP and elevates the N-terminal APP cleavage product, soluble APP-alpha. These cleavage events are associated with elevated alpha-secretase activity and enhanced hydrolysis of tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme, a primary candidate alpha-secretase. As a validation of these findings in vivo, we treated Tg APPsw transgenic mice overproducing Abeta with EGCG and found decreased Abeta levels and plaques associated with promotion of the nonamyloidogenic alpha-secretase proteolytic pathway. These data raise the possibility that EGCG dietary supplementation may provide effective prophylaxis for AD.
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ABSTRACT: During the past decades, a number of studies have demonstrated multiple beneficial health effects of green tea. Polyphenolics are the most biologically active components of green tea. Many targets can be targeted or affected by polyphenolics. In this study, we excavated all of the targets of green tea polyphenolics (GTPs) though literature mining and target calculation and analyzed the multiple pharmacology actions of green tea comprehensively through a network pharmacology approach. In the end, a total of 200 Homo sapiens targets were identified for fifteen GTPs. These targets were classified into six groups according to their related disease, which included cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, cardiovascular disease, muscular disease, and inflammation. Moreover, these targets mapped into 143 KEGG pathways, 26 of which were more enriched, as determined though pathway enrichment analysis and target-pathway network analysis. Among the identified pathways, 20 pathways were selected for analyzing the mechanisms of green tea in these diseases. Overall, this study systematically illustrated the mechanisms of the pleiotropic activity of green tea by analyzing the corresponding "drug-target-pathway-disease" interaction network.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2014; 2014:512081. · 2.18 Impact Factor
- Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics 09/2010; 37(9):932-938. · 0.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The physiological effects of the non-anthocyanin fraction (NAF) in a black soybean seed coat extract on Abeta-induced oxidative stress were investigated to confirm neuroprotection. In addition, we examined the preventive effect of NAF on cognitive defects induced by the intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Abeta. Levels of cellular oxidative stress were measured using 2[prime],7[prime]-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA). Neuronal cell viability was investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. To investigate in vivo anti-amnesic effects of NAF by using Y-maze and passive avoidance tests, the learning and memory impairment in mice was induced by Abeta. After in vivo assays, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the mouse brain were determined to confirm the cognitive effect. Individual phenolics of NAF were qualitatively analyzed by using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) Accurate-Mass Quadrupole Time of-Flight (Q-TOF) UPLC/MS. A NAF showed cell protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. Intracellular ROS accumulated through Abeta1-40 treatment was significantly reduced in comparison to cells only treated with Abeta1-40. In MTT and LDH assay, the NAF also presented neuroprotective effects on Abeta1-40-treated cytotoxicity. Finally, the administration of this NAF in mice significantly reversed the Abeta1-40-induced cognitive defects in in vivo behavioral tests. After behavioral tests, the mice brains were collected in order to examine lipid peroxidation and AChE activity. AChE, preparation was inhibited by NAF in a dose-dependent manner. MDA generation in the brain homogenate of mice treated with the NAF was decreased. Q-TOF UPLC/MS analyses revealed three major phenolics from the non-anthocyanin fraction; epicatechin, procyanidin B1, and procyanidin B2. The results suggest that the NAF in black soybean seed coat extracts may improve the cytotoxicity of Abeta in PC12 cells, possibly by reducing oxidative stress, and also have an anti-amnesic effect on the in vivo learning and memory deficits caused by Abeta. Q-TOF UPLC/MS analyses showed three major phenolics; (-)-epicatechin, procyanidin B1, and procyanidin B2. Above results suggest that (-)-epicatechins are the major components, and contributors to the anti-amnesic effect of the NAF from black soybean seed coat.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2014; 14(1):482. · 1.88 Impact Factor