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Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.34). 10/2005; 25(38):8680-5. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1731-05.2005
Source: PubMed


Aging causes changes in the hippocampus that may lead to cognitive decline in older adults. In young animals, exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis and improves learning. We investigated whether voluntary wheel running would benefit mice that were sedentary until 19 months of age. Specifically, young and aged mice were housed with or without a running wheel and injected with bromodeoxyuridine or retrovirus to label newborn cells. After 1 month, learning was tested in the Morris water maze. Aged runners showed faster acquisition and better retention of the maze than age-matched controls. The decline in neurogenesis in aged mice was reversed to 50% of young control levels by running. Moreover, fine morphology of new neurons did not differ between young and aged runners, indicating that the initial maturation of newborn neurons was not affected by aging. Thus, voluntary exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious morphological and behavioral consequences of aging.

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    • "Other studies also demonstrated the exercise-mediated increases in neurogenesis in the DGs of the hippocampus in young, adult, and aged animals [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144]. Moreover, running has been shown to improve the cognitive functions in aged mice and humans [145] [146] [147]. Thus, it is suggested that exercise enhances adult neurogenesis, which may contribute to cognitive functions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common serious metabolic diseases that results in hyperglycemia due to defects of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. The present review focuses on the alterations to the diabetic neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle, including stem cells in both tissues, and the preventive effects of physical activity on diabetes. Diabetes is associated with various nervous disorders, such as cognitive deficits, depression, and Alzheimer’s disease, and that may be caused by neural stem cell dysfunction. Additionally, diabetes induces skeletal muscle atrophy, the impairment of energy metabolism, and muscle weakness. Similar to neural stem cells, the proliferation and differentiation are attenuated in skeletal muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells. However, physical activity is very useful for preventing the diabetic alteration to the neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle. Physical activity improves neurogenic capacity of neural stem cells and the proliferative and differentiative abilities of satellite cells. The present review proposes physical activity as a useful measure for the patients in diabetes to improve the physiological functions and to maintain their quality of life. It further discusses the use of stem cell-based approaches in the context of diabetes treatment.
    05/2015; 2015:1-16. DOI:10.1155/2015/592915
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    • "The beneficial effects of exercise are remarkable in that they are almost the diametric opposite of the pattern of structural and functional deficits seen following prenatal morphine exposure. For example, exercise has been shown to modify the expression of neurotrophic factors [8], the development of neuronal processes [9] and neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation [7], a greatly plastic area of the brain "
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to morphine throughout pregnancy results in an array of prolonged or permanent neurochemical and behavioral deficits, including deficits in learning and memory in children of addicted mothers. This study investigated the effects of forced exercise on behavioral deficits of pups born to mothers addicted to morphine in rats. After mating and ensuring of pregnancy of female Wistar rats, they were divided into morphine or saline groups and in the second half of pregnancy (on days 11–18 of gestation) were injected subcutaneously with morphine or saline, respectively. Pups were weaned at postnatal day (PND) 21 and trained at mild intensity on a treadmill 20 days. On PND 41–47, the behavioral responses were studied. Light/dark (L/D) box and elevated plus maze (EPM) apparatus were used for investigation of anxiety, shuttle box and forced swimming tests were used to assess passive avoidance learning and memory and depression behavior, respectively. The results showed that prenatal morphine exposure caused reductions in time spent in light compartment of L/D box and EPM open arm, while postnatal exercise reversed these effects. We also found that prenatal morphine exposure caused a reduction in step through latency in passive avoidance memory test and exercise counteracted with this effect. Performance in the forced swimming test did not affected by prenatal morphine exposure or postnatal exercise. Exercise seems to be one of the strategies in reduction of behavioral deficits of children born to addicted mothers to morphine.
    Physiology & Behavior 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.10.038 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    • "In rodents, this type of exercise has also been related to increased cell proliferation in the hippocampus, and selective increases in cerebral blood volume, which is related to reduction in age-related decline in cell proliferation, and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (e.g. Kronenberg et al., 2006; Pereira et al., 2014; Van Praag et al., 2005). "
    The Preservation of Memory: Theory and Practice for Clinical and Non-Clinical Populations, Edited by Bruno D, 01/2015: chapter The effects of ageing and exercise on recollection and familiarity based memory processes.; Psychology Press: Taylor and Francis..
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