Considerable literature reflects the range of HIV-related neurocognitive complications, including relatively poor performance on tests of: movement and coordination; attention and concentration; reaction time; and mental flexibility. Efforts to develop appropriate screening techniques include the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS), a brief measure that has demonstrated promise but is lacking extensive independent evaluation. The present study examines the utility of the HDS in a sample of HIV-seropositive adults with a co-morbid history of psychiatric and substance use disorders. Forty subjects (65% male; mean age 41 years; mean education 12.2 years; 55% African American, 30% Caucasian) recruited for a study of the impact of brief psychotherapy on adherence to medications and medical appointments, relapse prevention, and/or enhancement of mental health functioning completed a battery of neuropsychological measures, including the HDS. Forty percent were identified as at high risk for significant cognitive-motor disorder (HDS total score < or =10). After controlling for age, education, illness (absolute CD4), and depressed mood, high-risk participants performed significantly worse on measures of simple and sustained divided attention, psychomotor speed, and working memory. However, only 25 of 40 (63%) were correctly classified based on their performance on traditional tests of neuropsychological functioning. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various screening tools have been proposed to identify HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). However, there has been no systematic review of their strengths and weaknesses in detecting HAND when compared to gold standard neuropsychological testing. Thirty-five studies assessing HAND screens that were conducted in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy were retrieved using standard search procedures. Of those, 19 (54 %) compared their screen to standard neuropsychological testing. Studies were characterised by a wide variation in criterion validity primarily due to non-standard definition of neurocognitive impairment, and to the demographic and clinical heterogeneity of samples. Assessment of construct validity was lacking, and longitudinal useability was not established. To address these limitations, the current review proposed a summary of the most sensitive and specific studies (>70 %), as well as providing explicit caution regarding their weaknesses, and recommendations for their use in HIV primary care settings.
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The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11904-013-0176-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Current HIV/AIDS Reports 09/2013; 10(4). DOI:10.1007/s11904-013-0176-6 · 3.80 Impact Factor
"Dementia is an easily quantifiable and standardized marker; many studies have successfully proved its validity in providing formal diagnostic criteria.16 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Certain organic antecedents such as fever, weight loss, diarrhoea and systemic infections often present with neurocognitive deficits (NCDs). However, routine HIV screening is not done in such cases. HIV can present with psychiatric and neurocognitive symptoms as highlighted in the two cases given below.
Case 1, a housewife, had been exhibiting altered behaviour following a low-grade fever over the past 3 weeks, associated with muttering to self, talking irrelevantly, would wander away from home, had decreased sleep, loss of appetite, and neglected self-care. She had displayed impulsivity by jumping into a well. On admission, the patient was mute, lethargic and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tested positive for cryptococcus. Her human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was positive.
Case 2, a housewife, presented with one-month history of muttering to self, increased irritability, aggressive on minimal provocation, decreased sleep, loss of appetite, and suspiciousness towards family members. On provisional diagnosis of schizophrenia, the patient was started on low-dose antipsychotic drugs, which showed minimal improvement. There was a distinct slowness in her movements and she progressively lost weight. Routine investigations were normal but her HIV status was positive.
It has recently come to light that HIV infection also presents with subtle manifestations of the central nervous system (CNS), which are distinct from NCD and, if harnessed, could enhance diagnostic sensitivity and reduce the ‘asymptomatic period’. Hence HIV testing is recommended in such cases.
Indian Journal of Psychiatry 07/2006; 48(3):193-5. DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.31585
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