The antifungal activity of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender oil) and its main components, linalool and linalyl acetate, was investigated against 50 clinical isolates of Candida albicans (28 oropharyngeal strains, 22 vaginal strains) and C. albicans ATCC 3153. Growth inhibition, killing time and inhibition of germ tube formation were evaluated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Lavender oil inhibited C. albicans growth: mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.69% (vol./vol.) (vaginal strains) and 1.04% (oropharyngeal strains); mean MFC of 1.1% (vaginal strains) and 1.8% (oropharyngeal strains). Linalool was more effective than essential oil: mean MIC of 0.09% (vaginal strains) and 0.29% (oropharyngeal strains); mean MFC of 0.1% (vaginal strains) and 0.3% (oropharyngeal strains). Linalyl acetate was almost ineffective. Lavender oil (2%) killed 100% of the C. albicans ATCC 3153 cells within 15 min; linalool (0.5%) killed 100% of the cells within 30 s. The essential oil inhibited germ tube formation (mean MIC of 0.09%), as did the main components (MIC of 0.11% for linalool and 0.08% for linalyl acetate). Both the essential oil and its main components inhibited hyphal elongation of C. albicans ATCC 3153 (about 50% inhibition at 0.016% with each substance). Lavender oil shows both fungistatic and fungicidal activity against C. albicans strains. At lower concentrations, it inhibits germ tube formation and hyphal elongation, indicating that it is effective against C. albicans dimorphism and may thus reduce fungal progression and the spread of infection in host tissues.
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"Both linalool and benzyl alcohol have previously been suggested to have anti-fungal activity (e.g. –); thus, elevated emissions of these compounds may reflect the induction plant defenses against powdery mildew infection. It is also plausible that such compounds may play an indirect role in plant defense by facilitating the attraction of natural enemies of the fungus. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical "moldy" odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms.
PLoS ONE 08/2011; 6(8):e23799. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0023799 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Folk and traditional therapeutic use of the essential oil of English lavender for pain, infection, relaxation, and sedation dates back centuries. Current research focusing on the inherent synergism of Lavandula angustifolia Miller demonstrates great potential for future applications. Today's investigations may provide the key to eradicating degenerative inflammatory disease, infectious disease, and carcinogenesis.
Holistic nursing practice 11/2008; 23(1):57-64. DOI:10.1097/01.HNP.0000343210.56710.fc · 0.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Silver sulfadiazine (SSD) is the most used topical agent for the treatment of burn wounds. However, it has some side effects such as delayed and incomplete epithelialization, generation of black scars, and limited penetration to the depth of a wound. Objective: The present study investigated the efficacy of herbal combination cream containing Aloe vera gel and essential oils of Lavandula stoechas and Pelargonium roseum in the alleviation of symptoms in patients with superficial second-degree burns and comparison of its effects with those of SSD 1% cream. Methods: One hundred eleven patients with second-degree burns (occurring in the preceding 48 hours and affecting <50% body area) were randomized to receive either herbal cream (n = 56) or SSD 1% cream (n = 55) applied once daily for 14 days. Prevalence of skin dryness and pain severity (assessed using a visual analogue scale) and evidence of infection was determined for patients at baseline as well days 2, 7, and 14. Results: Both groups experienced a significant reduction in the pain severity at day 14 compared to baseline (p <0.001). As for the magnitude of change in pain score, there was a significantly greater reduction from baseline to the seven (p = 0.014) and 14 (p = 0.05) day in the herbal cream compared to control group. The frequency of skin dryness was not significantly different between the groups at any of the assessed time points (p >0.05). There was a single case of infection in the herbal cream group, which cleared with continuation of treatment. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that the herbal cream used here is superior to SSD 1% cream in the alleviation of pain and may serve as a natural alternative for treatment of second-degree burns.