Ubx2 links the Cdc48 complex to ER-associated protein degradation.
ABSTRACT Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation requires the dislocation of selected substrates from the ER to the cytosol for proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The AAA ATPase Cdc48 (known as p97 or VCP in mammals) has a crucial, but poorly understood role in this transport step. Here, we show that Ubx2 (Sel1) mediates interaction of the Cdc48 complex with the ER membrane-bound ubiquitin ligases Hrd1 (Der3) and Doa10. The membrane protein Ubx2 contains a UBX domain that interacts with Cdc48 and an additional UBA domain. Absence of Ubx2 abrogates breakdown of ER proteins but also that of a cytosolic protein, which is ubiquitinated by Doa10. Intriguingly, our results suggest that recruitment of Cdc48 by Ubx2 is essential for turnover of both ER and non-ER substrates, whereas the UBA domain of Ubx2 is specifically required for ER proteins only. Thus, a complex comprising the AAA ATPase, a ubiquitin ligase and the recruitment factor Ubx2 has a central role in ER-associated proteolysis.
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ABSTRACT: In cells the quality of newly synthesized proteins is monitored in regard to proper folding and correct assembly in the early secretory pathway, the cytosol and the nucleoplasm. Proteins recognized as non-native in the ER will be removed and degraded by a process termed ERAD. ERAD of aberrant proteins is accompanied by various changes of cellular organelles and results in protein folding diseases. This review focuses on how the immunocytochemical labeling and electron microscopic analyses have helped to disclose the in situ subcellular distribution pattern of some of the key machinery proteins of the cellular protein quality control, the organelle changes due to the presence of misfolded proteins, and the efficiency of synthetic chaperones to rescue disease-causing trafficking defects of aberrant proteins.Histochemie 03/2008; 129(2):163-77. DOI:10.1007/s00418-007-0366-7 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: p97 (also called VCP or Cdc48p) and E3 ubiquitin ligases are the key players in retrotranslocation and ubiquitination of substrates in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathways. Although their biochemical properties have been well studied, their cellular functions in development have not been revealed. Here, we investigate cellular functions of p97 and E3 ubiquitin ligases in Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. We found that C. elegans possesses three E3 ubiquitin ligases (named as HRD-1, HRDL-1 and MARC-6) like mammals, and that their simultaneous depletion caused extremely delayed growth. By monitoring the expression of an ER chaperone gene, it was revealed that p97 and HRD-1 play essential roles in unfolded protein response (UPR) and ERAD pathways. We further found that HRD-1 functions in concert with BiP, and that two BiP paralogues are functionally diversified. HRD-1 and BiP(HSP-3) play important roles in the developmental growth and function of intestinal cells, while HRD-1 and BiP(HSP-4) in the gonad formation. We propose that E3 ubiquitin ligases function in concert with a specific partner chaperone.Genes to Cells 10/2007; 12(9):1063-73. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2007.01108.x · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The membrane-anchored ubiquitin ligase gp78 promotes degradation of misfolded endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins and sterol-regulated degradation of HMG-CoA reductase. It was known previously that Ufd1 plays a critical role in ER-associated degradation (ERAD) together with Npl4 and VCP. The VCP-Ufd1-Npl4 complex recognizes polyubiquitin chains and transfers the ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome. Here we show that Ufd1 directly interacts with gp78 and functions as a cofactor. Ufd1 enhances the E3 activity of gp78, accelerates the ubiquitination and degradation of reductase, and eventually promotes receptor-mediated uptake of low-density lipoprotein. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the monoubiquitin-binding site in Ufd1 is required for the enhancement of gp78 activity and that the polyubiquitin-binding site in Ufd1 is critical for a postubiquitination step in ERAD. In summary, our study identifies Ufd1 as a cofactor of gp78, reveals an unappreciated function of Ufd1 in the ubiquitination reaction during ERAD, and illustrates that Ufd1 plays a critical role in cholesterol metabolism.Cell Metabolism 09/2007; 6(2):115-28. DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2007.07.002 · 16.75 Impact Factor