Phase II trial of weekly paclitaxel in patients with advanced melanoma.
ABSTRACT New therapies are needed to improve the prognosis of patients with metastatic melanoma. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of weekly paclitaxel in patients with metastatic melanoma. Patients received paclitaxel at 80 mg/m over 1 h, weekly for 3 weeks, followed by a 1-week rest period. Disease status was assessed every other cycle. Treatment was continued until patients experienced either disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in this phase II clinical trial. Of these patients, two were subsequently determined to be ineligible. All patients, however, were considered to be evaluable for toxicity and all patients were included for response assessment in an intention-to-treat analysis. Patients received paclitaxel for a median of two cycles (range, <1-8). None of the 27 patients showed a response to treatment. Eight patients had stable disease. The median progression-free survival was 1.8 months (95% confidence interval, 1.7-2.5 months) and the median survival was 7.6 months (95% confidence interval, 4.7-9.7 months). The most common grade 3 toxicity was neutropenia (four patients) and one patient had grade 4 neutropenia. Other treatment-related grade 3 toxicities included hypersensitivity reaction (one patient) and diarrhoea (one patient). Of note, five patients had peripheral neuropathy; however, in each case, the neuropathy was only grade 1. Weekly paclitaxel is relatively well tolerated and can maintain disease stability for some metastatic melanoma patients. Unfortunately, the anti-tumour activity of this single-agent therapy is low and additional treatment innovations are needed.
SourceAvailable from: Masanobu Shindoh
Dataset: 2015:Am J Pathol:Akiyama
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ABSTRACT: Tumor angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. Tumor endothelial cells (TECs) are a therapeutic target of antiangiogenic chemotherapy that was recently developed and is currently being investigated in the clinic with promising results. Low-dose chemotherapy, which is the long-term administration of relatively low doses of chemotherapeutic agents, has been proposed for targeting tumor angiogenesis in various types of cancers. Although the efficacy of low-dose chemotherapy has been confirmed in several clinical models, some studies show insufficient therapeutic effect for malignant cancers. As a possible mechanism of the treatment failure, it has been considered that tumor cells may acquire resistance to this therapy. However, drug resistance by TECs may also be due to another mechanism for resistance of tumor cells to low-dose chemotherapy. We reported elsewhere that TECs were resistant to the anticancer drug paclitaxel, which is a mitotic inhibitor, concomitant with P-glycoprotein up-regulation. Verapamil, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, abrogated TEC resistance in vitro. Herein, we demonstrated that verapamil coadministration enhanced the effects of low-dose paclitaxel concomitant with inhibiting tumor angiogenesis in a preclinical in vivo mouse melanoma xenograft model. Furthermore, verapamil coadministration reduced lung metastasis. These results suggest that inhibiting P-glycoprotein in TECs may be a novel strategy for low-dose chemotherapy targeting TECs.American Journal Of Pathology 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.10.017 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this study was to determine the safety, toxicity, and maximum tolerated dose of nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel as part of biochemotherapy for metastatic melanoma and to determine whether substituting nab-paclitaxel for less potent agents could increase response rates and duration. Treatment consisted of intravenous cisplatin (20 mg/m) on days 1-4, oral temozolomide (250 mg/m) on days 1-3, subcutaneous interferon-α (5×10 IU/m) on days 1-5, and continuous intravenous interleukin-2 (9×10 IU/m) for 96 h on days 1-4. A standard 3+3 dose escalation method was used; the nab-paclitaxel starting dose was 100 mg/m on day 1 and 70 mg/m on day 5. The treatment cycle was repeated every 3 weeks and toxicity was assessed weekly. Ten patients were enrolled. Dose-limiting toxicities included diarrhea, transaminasemia, and neutropenia. The maximum tolerated dose was not identified because the nab-paclitaxel dose on day 1 at the lowest planned dose (80 mg/m) caused dose-limiting toxicity in two of five patients. Of the nine patients who were evaluable for response, five had a partial response. The median time to disease progression was 5.30 months and the median overall survival was 8.73 months. Six patients developed central nervous system metastasis at a median of 5.33 months after treatment initiation. Biochemotherapy including nab-paclitaxel according to the doses and schedule regimen used in the present study has significant toxicity. Substituting dacarbazine with temozolomide did not prevent central nervous system metastasis in patients with metastatic melanoma.Melanoma research 04/2014; 24(4). DOI:10.1097/CMR.0000000000000062 · 2.10 Impact Factor