Apoptosis and loss of adhesion of bronchial epithelial cells in asthma.
ABSTRACT Asthma is an inflammatory airway disease associated with infiltration of T cells and eosinophils, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and shedding of bronchial epithelial cells (EC). We have recently shown that T cells and eosinophils cooperate in inducing bronchial EC apoptosis in asthma through secretion of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Since EC shedding is a histologic hallmark of asthma, the intercellular junction of EC may be a target of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Bronchial EC, cultured and exposed to IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, were studied for the expression of adhesion molecules and apoptosis. In addition, the epithelial layer of bronchial biopsies from asthma patients was evaluated for apoptosis, shedding, and expression of adhesion molecules.
We demonstrate that the induction of EC apoptosis is accompanied by loss of E-cadherin. In situ examination of E-cadherin in asthma revealed a reduction in its expression on EC membranes. In contrast, the in vitro and in vivo expression of beta1-integrins and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) increased on EC during asthmatic airway inflammation.
Loss of cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion and apoptosis could account for fragility and shedding of EC in asthma, especially since this occurs between columnar and basal EC.
Article: Basal cells of differentiated bronchial epithelium are more susceptible to rhinovirus infection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We used an in vitro model of differentiated tracheobronchial epithelium to analyze the susceptibility of different cell types to infection with rhinoviruses (RVs). Primary cells from control subjects were cultured in an air-liquid interface to form differentiated epithelia. Suprabasal and basal fractions were separated after trypsin digestion, and cell suspensions were infected with serotypes RV16 and RV1A. These cell fractions were analyzed for expression of viral capsid protein VP2 (flow cytometry), viral replication (real-time PCR), cytokeratin-14, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Compared with suprabasal fraction, basal cells had increased percentages of cells staining positive for VP2 (RV1A: 37.8% versus 9.1%, P < 0.01; RV16: 12.0 versus 3.0%, P < 0.05). The average number of viral RNA copies per cell was also higher in basal cells (2.2- and 2.4-fold increase in RV1A- and RV16-infected cells, respectively) compared with suprabasal cells. Furthermore, ICAM-1 was expressed by 33.3% of basal cells, compared with 8.1% of suprabasal cells (P < 0.05). Finally, in culture models of epithelial injury (detached suprabasal cells or scratched surface), there was significantly greater replication of RV1A compared with intact cell layer. These findings demonstrate that basal cells are more susceptible to RV infection than suprabasal cells. For major group RV, this may be in part due to increased expression of ICAM-1; however, minor group RV also replicated more effectively in basal cells. These results suggest the possibility that epithelial cell differentiation is associated with the maturation of antiviral defense mechanisms.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 05/2008; 38(5):517-23. · 5.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Relationships between aging, disease risks, and longevity are not yet well understood. For example, joint increases in cancer risk and total survival observed in many human populations and some experimental aging studies may be linked to a trade-off between cancer and aging as well as to the trade-off(s) between cancer and other diseases, and their relative impact is not clear. While the former trade-off (between cancer and aging) received broad attention in aging research, the latter one lacks respective studies, although its understanding is important for developing optimal strategies of increasing both longevity and healthy life span. In this paper, we explore the possibility of trade-offs between risks of cancer and selected major disorders. First, we review current literature suggesting that the trade-offs between cancer and other diseases may exist and be linked to the differential intensity of apoptosis. Then we select relevant disorders for the analysis (acute coronary heart disease [ACHD], stroke, asthma, and Alzheimer disease [AD]) and calculate the risk of cancer among individuals with each of these disorders, and vice versa, using the Framingham Study (5209 individuals) and the National Long Term Care Survey (NLTCS) (38,214 individuals) data. We found a reduction in cancer risk among old (80+) men with stroke and in risk of ACHD among men (50+) with cancer in the Framingham Study. We also found an increase in ACHD and stroke among individuals with cancer, and a reduction in cancer risk among women with AD in the NLTCS. The manifestation of trade-offs between risks of cancer and other diseases thus depended on sex, age, and study population. We discuss factors modulating the potential trade-offs between major disorders in populations, e.g., disease treatments. Further study is needed to clarify possible impact of such trade-offs on longevity.Rejuvenation Research 08/2010; 13(4):387-96. · 3.83 Impact Factor
Article: Desiccating stress induces CD4+ T-cell-mediated Sjögren's syndrome-like corneal epithelial apoptosis via activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway by interferon-γ.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of CD4(+) T-cell-produced interferon (IFN)-γ on corneal epithelial apoptosis in a murine desiccating stress (DS) model that resembles Sjögren's syndrome. The DS model was generated in C57BL/6 (B6) and B6 IFN-γ-knockout (B6γKO) mice. Adoptive transfer of CD4(+) T cells from DS-exposed donor to recombination activating gene (RAG)-1(-/-) recipient mice and topical neutralization of IFN-γ were performed to determine whether IFN-γ produced by pathogenic CD4(+) T cells promotes corneal epithelial apoptosis. Apoptosis in corneal epithelia was assessed by evaluating the expression and activity of caspases 3, 8, and 9. The activation of caspase-8 mediated increased corneal epithelial apoptosis in B6 mice after DS, and this was exacerbated by subconjunctival IFN-γ injection. B6γKO mice were resistant to DS-induced apoptosis; however, B6γKO mice receiving IFN-γ developed apoptosis similar to that observed in B6 wild-type mice. Adoptive transfer of CD4(+) T cells from donors subjected to DS increased corneal epithelial apoptosis via activation of caspase-8 in recipients, similar to that in the donor mice. Topical neutralization of IFN-γ in adoptive transfer recipients decreased corneal epithelial apoptosis. DS, IFN-γ administration, or CD4(+) T-cell adoptive transfer had no effect on the expression and activation of the intrinsic apoptosis mediator, caspase-9. CD4(+) T-cell-produced IFN-γ plays a pivotal role in DS-induced corneal epithelial apoptosis via activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway.American Journal Of Pathology 08/2011; 179(4):1807-14. · 4.89 Impact Factor