Nearly 40% of human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV-) infected veterans on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the United States are coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). With the increased survival due to declining opportunistic infections as a result of HAART, HCV-associated liver disease has become a leading cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. HCV infection has been shown to lead to rapid progression of HCV-related liver disease in HIV infection. Results from recent clinical trials in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients show improved response rates using pegylated formulations of interferon plus ribavirin when compared to standard interferon plus ribavirin. However, the treatment of HCV in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients can be complicated by the hepatotoxic and myelosuppressive effects of HIV therapy and HIV infection itself. Prior to initiating HCV therapy, HIV therapy should be optimized by improving immune suppression and avoiding specific antiretroviral drugs that may cause hepatotoxicity and myelosuppression. In the event of treatment-related neutropenia or anemia during HCV therapy, the use of growth factors should be considered to maximize sustained virologic response to HCV therapy. In HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with end-stage liver disease, liver transplantation is being investigated and shows promise as a potential therapeutic option. With the recent advances in the treatment of HCV in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals, all HIV/HCV-coinfected patients eligible for HCV treatment should be evaluated for HCV combination therapy with careful consideration of their HIV disease.
"The available literature suggests a very variable rate for the co-infections of HCV and HBV among the HIV subjects [9,32,33]. It has been stated that HIV has a direct effect on the life cycle of HBV and also a very impounding effect on the host's ability to clear the infection and if this was to be true then we could expect more number of cases with severe chronic liver damage and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Opportunistic Infections (OIs) and co-infections are the major cause of deaths amongst HIV infected individuals and this mostly depends upon the risk factors, type of exposure and geographic region. The commonest types of infections reported are tuberculosis, chronic diarrhoea, oral candidiasis, herpes simplex virus-2, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Due to the scarcity of OIs data available from this region, we had designed a study to determine the frequency of different OIs amongst HIV seropositive patients.
Analysis of the different spectrum of OIs/Co-infections were carried out with 204 HIV sero-positive patients (142 males and 62 females) who visited the HIV/AIDS Apex Clinic in a tertiary care hospital from March 2006 to March 2009. The CD4+ count was estimated using FACS Calibur, the routine smear test, serology, nested RT-PCR and DNA sequencing were carried out to determine the different OIs.
In this study, HIV seropositive patients were mostly from middle age group (31-40 yrs) with CD4+ counts in majority of symptomatic AIDS patients below 200 cells/mm3. The common co-infections/opportunistic infections were OC (53.43%), CD (47.05%), HSV-2 (36.76%), TB (35.29%), CMV (26.96%), HBV (15.19%) and HCV (7.35%). Dual infections, like HSV-2 & CMV (15.38%), HSV-2 & TB (14.61%), HSV-2 & oral candidiasis (24.61%) and CMV & oral candidiasis (14.61%) were significant in follow-up patients. Triple infections were also common e.g., TB, CD, OC infection occurring frequently in about 14.21% of the study population. Multiple infections like OC, TB, CD amongst the viral co-infected patients with HSV-2, HCV, CMV and HBV are also reported in this study. The genotyping analysis of the HCV co-infected HIV individuals shows that two belonged to HCV genotype 1 and 8 belonged to genotype 3.
A wide spectrum of OIs were observed amongst HIV-infected patients in the HIV/AIDS Apex Clinic. Oral candidiasis, CD, CMV and HSV-2, were the common OIs in those patients. This study aims to provide a clearer picture regarding infections occurring amongst HIV seropositive individuals so that the scientific findings could be translated into sustainable prevention programmes and improved public health policies.
"They could be attributed to the epidemiologic conditions of the viruses that depend on various factors including the overlapping degree of risk factors in order to get infected with these viruses. In the US and Europe, HIV/HBV co-infection was reported to be 6 to 14% while reports for HIV/HCV varied in the range of 25 to 50% [9,10]. In a similar study carried out in Ahvaz - South Iran, the co-infection rates of HBV, HCV, and HBV/HCV in HIV-positive patients were found to be 44, 74, and 20%, respectively , and in our study the rates were 14.5% for HIV-HBV, 72% for HIV-HCV, and 7.9% for HBV/HCV coinfections. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV, HBV and HCV is major public health concerns. Because of shared routes of transmission, HIV-HCV coinfection and HIV-HBV coinfection are common. HIV-positive individuals are at risk of coinfection with HBV and HCV infections. The prevalence rates of coinfection with HBV and HCV in HIV-patients have been variable worldwide depending on the geographic regions, and the type of exposure.
This study aimed to examine HBV and HCV coinfection serologically and determine the shared and significant factors in the coinfection of HIV-positive patients.
This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 HIV-positive patients including 358 males and 33 females in Lorestan province, west Iran, to survey coinfection with HBsAg and anti-HCV. The retrospective demographic data of the subjects was collected and the patients' serums were analyzed by ELISA kits including HBsAg and anti-HCV. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS software (15) and Chi-square. Fisher's exact test with 5% error intervals was used to measure the correlation of variables and infection rates.
The results of the study indicated that the prevalence of coinfection in HIV-positive patients with hepatitis viruses was 94.4% (370 in 391), out of whom 57 (14.5%) cases were HBsAg positive, 282 (72%) cases were anti-HCV positive, and 31 (7.9%) cases were both HBsAg and anti-HCV positive.
There was a significant correlation between coinfection with HCV and HBV and/or both among HIV-positive patients depending on different variables including sex, age, occupation, marital status, exposure to risk factors. (p < 0.001).
"Further, coinfection with viral hepatitis may complicate the delivery of ART by increasing the risk of drug-related hepatoxicity and impacting the selection of specific agents (e.g., those dually active against HIV and HBV) . Expert guidelines developed in the United States and Europe recommend screening of all HIV-infected persons for infection with HCV and HBV and appropriate management of those found to be chronically infected    . Treatment strategies for HBV infection include the use of nucleos(t )ide analogues with or without anti-HIV activity and/or peginterferon alfa (PegIFN) whereas HCV treatment is limited to the combination of PegIFN and ribavirin (RBV). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Persons at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are also likely to be at risk for other infectious pathogens, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). These are bloodborne pathogens transmitted through similar routes; for example, via injection drug use (IDU), sexual contact, or from mother to child during pregnancy or birth. In some settings, the prevalence of coinfection with HBV and/or HCV is high. In the context of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), liver disease has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected persons. Further, coinfection with viral hepatitis may complicate the delivery of ART by increasing the risk of drug-related hepatoxicity and impacting the selection of specific agents (e.g., those dually active against HIV and HBV). Expert guidelines developed in the United States and Europe recommend screening of all HIV-infected persons for infection with HCV and HBV and appropriate management of those found to be chronically infected. Treatment strategies for HBV infection include the use of nucleos(t)ide analogues with or without anti-HIV activity and/or peginterferon alfa (PegIFN) whereas HCV treatment is limited to the combination of PegIFN and ribavirin (RBV). Current approaches to management of HIV-infected persons coinfected with HBV or HCV are discussed in this review.
Journal of Hepatology 03/2008; 48(2):353-67. DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2007.11.009 · 11.34 Impact Factor
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