Electro-clinical and imaging characteristics of focal cortical dysplasia: correlation with pathological subtypes.
ABSTRACT Focal cortical dysplasia (CD) is a common cause of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. CD is due to abnormalities in neuronal migration, proliferation, and/or differentiation that result in four distinct pathological subtypes: 1A, 1B, 2A, and 2B. In order to provide clinical correlation to these pathological subtypes, we reviewed the electro-clinical and imaging characteristics and surgical outcomes of the four pathological subtypes of CD.
We retrospectively reviewed patient data from epilepsy surgeries at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation between 1990 and 2002. Only those patients with the definite pathological diagnosis of isolated cortical dysplasia were included in the study (n = 145).
Pathological subtypes 2A and 2B were predominantly frontal in location, and had a more severe epilepsy syndrome with lower intelligence quotient scores than subtypes 1A and 1B. Patients with subtype 1A FCD had less severe, later onset epilepsy that was predominantly located in the temporal lobe. Risk factors for epilepsy included febrile seizures for type 1A, head trauma for types 1A and 1B, and perinatal adverse events for type 2B. Type 2B demonstrated significantly more FLAIR signal abnormalities than the other groups. Sixty-three percent of patients overall had an Engel I outcome at 6 months follow-up. The best outcomes were in the 2B subtype, and in those who did not require an invasive EEG evaluation.
Clinically important differences exist between the pathological subtypes of CD, which may assist in their management, and provide further insight into their underlying pathophysiology.
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ABSTRACT: A significant minority of patients with focal epilepsy are candidates for resective epilepsy surgery. Structural and functional neuroimaging plays an important role in the presurgical evaluation of theses patients. The most frequent etiologies of pharmacoresistant epilepsy in the adult population are mesial temporal sclerosis, malformations of cortical development, cavernous angiomas, and low-grade neoplasms. High-resolution multiplanar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with sequences providing T1 and T2 contrast is the initial imaging study of choice to detect these epileptogenic lesions. The epilepsy MRI protocol can be individually tailored when considering the patient's clinical and electrophysiological data. Metabolic imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) visualize metabolic alterations of the brain in the ictal and interictal states. These techniques may have localizing value in patients with a normal MRI scan. Functional MRI is helpful in non-invasively identifying areas of eloquent cortex.Developments in imaging technology and digital postprocessing may increase the yield for imaging studies to detect the epileptogenic lesion and to characterize its connectivity within the epileptic brain.Journal of Clinical Neurology 04/2008; 4(1):1-16. · 1.69 Impact Factor