Delay in time to receipt of thrombolytic medication among Medicare patients with kidney disease.
ABSTRACT Patients with kidney disease and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) receive standard therapy, including thrombolytic medication, less frequently than patients with normal kidney function. Our goal is to identify potential differences in thrombolytic medication delays and thrombolytic-associated bleeding events by severity of kidney disease.
This is a retrospective cohort analysis of Cooperative Cardiovascular Project data for all Medicare patients with AMI from 4,601 hospitals. Outcome measures included time to administration of thrombolytic medication censored at 6 hours and bleeding events.
Of 109,169 patients (mean age, 77.4 years; 50.6% women), 13.9% received thrombolysis therapy. Average time to thrombolytic therapy was longer in patients with worse kidney function. Adjusted hazard ratios for minutes to thrombolytic therapy were 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 0.87) for patients with a serum creatinine level of 1.6 to 2.0 mg/dL (141 to 177 micromol/L) and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.63) for patients with a creatinine level greater than 2.0 mg/dL (>177 micromol/L) or on dialysis therapy compared with those with normal kidney function. Odds ratios for bleeding events in patients administered thrombolytics versus those who were not decreased with worse kidney function: adjusted odds ratios, 2.28 (95% CI, 2.16 to 2.42) in patients with normal kidney function and 1.84 (95% CI, 1.09 to 3.10) in dialysis patients.
Patients with worse kidney function experienced treatment delays, but were not at greater risk for thrombolysis-associated excess bleeding events. Physician concerns of thrombolytic-associated bleeding may not be sufficient reason to delay the administration of thrombolytic medication.
- SourceAvailable from: Venkata K Mukku[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. The outcomes of CAD are poorer in patients with CKD. In addition to traditional risk factors, several uremia-related risk factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, coronary artery calcification, hyperhomocysteinemia, and immunosuppressants have been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. A number of uremia-related biomarkers are identified as predictors of cardiac outcomes in CKD patients. The symptoms of CAD may not be typical in patients with CKD. Both dobutamine stress echocardiography and radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging have moderate sensitivity and specificity in detecting obstructive CAD in CKD patients. Invasive coronary angiography carries a risk of contrast nephropathy in patients with advanced CKD. It should be reserved for those patients with a high risk for CAD and those who would benefit from revascularization. Guideline-recommended therapies are, in general, underutilized in renal patients. Medical therapy should be considered the initial strategy for clinically stable CAD. The effects of statins in patients with advanced CKD have been neutral despite a lipid-lowering effect. Compared to non-CKD population, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with higher procedure complications, restenosis, and future cardiac events even in the drug-eluting stent era in patients with CKD. Compared with PCI, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) reduces repeat revascularizations but is associated with significant perioperative morbidity and mortality. Screening for CAD is an important part of preoperative evaluation for kidney transplant candidates.Current Cardiology Reviews 02/2014;
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the relative benefit of reperfusion strategies in renal dysfunction and ST-segment elevation/left bundle branch block (STE/LBBB). Few data are available informing the treatment of STE myocardial infarction in the presence of renal dysfunction. Patients (N = 12,532) from the GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) presenting with STE/LBBB were stratified by renal function and receipt of fibrinolysis, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), or neither. As renal function declined, hospital mortality increased and reperfusion decreased (both p < 0.001). Compared with no reperfusion, primary PCI was associated with lower hospital mortality in patients with normal renal function (1.9% vs. 3.7%, p = 0.001, adjusted) but no reduction in those with renal dysfunction (14% vs. 15% for glomerular filtration rate [GFR] 30 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m(2); 29% vs. 32% for GFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Fibrinolysis was not associated with lower hospital mortality for normal (3.1% vs. 3.7%, p = NS) or low renal function (32% vs. 32%, p = NS) and with higher mortality with moderate renal dysfunction (adjusted odds ratio: 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 1.80). Primary PCI was associated with increased hospital bleeding and fibrinolysis with increased stroke in all patients. Among hospital survivors, primary PCI, but not fibrinolysis, was associated with lower mortality for moderate dysfunction. Both reperfusion strategies were associated with higher mortality for severe dysfunction. In STE/LBBB and renal dysfunction, mortality rates are high and reperfusion rates are lower. In moderate renal dysfunction, primary PCI is associated with mortality reduction at 6 months. Outcomes remain poor with severe renal dysfunction, despite receipt of reperfusion therapy.JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 01/2009; 2(1):26-33. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries is common, extensive, and more unstable among patients with chronic renal impairment or chronic kidney disease (CKD). The initial presentation of coronary disease is often acute coronary syndrome (ACS) that tends to be more complicated and has a higher risk of death in this population. Medical treatment of ACS includes antianginal agents, antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulants, and pharmacotherapies that modify the natural history of ventricular remodeling after injury. Revascularization, primarily with percutaneous coronary intervention and stenting, is critical for optimal outcomes in those at moderate and high risk for reinfarction, the development of heart failure, and death in predialysis patients with CKD. The benefit of revascularization in ACS may not extend to those with end-stage renal disease because of competing sources of all-cause mortality. In stable patients with CKD and multivessel coronary artery disease, observational studies have found that bypass surgery is associated with a reduced mortality as compared with percutaneous coronary intervention when patients are followed for several years. This article will review the guidelines-recommended therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of stable coronary atherosclerosis and ACS and give specific guidance on benefits, hazards, dose adjustments, and caveats concerning patients with baseline CKD.Current problems in cardiology 05/2013; 38(5):165-206. · 3.96 Impact Factor