Patients with kidney disease and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) receive standard therapy, including thrombolytic medication, less frequently than patients with normal kidney function. Our goal is to identify potential differences in thrombolytic medication delays and thrombolytic-associated bleeding events by severity of kidney disease.
This is a retrospective cohort analysis of Cooperative Cardiovascular Project data for all Medicare patients with AMI from 4,601 hospitals. Outcome measures included time to administration of thrombolytic medication censored at 6 hours and bleeding events.
Of 109,169 patients (mean age, 77.4 years; 50.6% women), 13.9% received thrombolysis therapy. Average time to thrombolytic therapy was longer in patients with worse kidney function. Adjusted hazard ratios for minutes to thrombolytic therapy were 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 0.87) for patients with a serum creatinine level of 1.6 to 2.0 mg/dL (141 to 177 micromol/L) and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.63) for patients with a creatinine level greater than 2.0 mg/dL (>177 micromol/L) or on dialysis therapy compared with those with normal kidney function. Odds ratios for bleeding events in patients administered thrombolytics versus those who were not decreased with worse kidney function: adjusted odds ratios, 2.28 (95% CI, 2.16 to 2.42) in patients with normal kidney function and 1.84 (95% CI, 1.09 to 3.10) in dialysis patients.
Patients with worse kidney function experienced treatment delays, but were not at greater risk for thrombolysis-associated excess bleeding events. Physician concerns of thrombolytic-associated bleeding may not be sufficient reason to delay the administration of thrombolytic medication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high mortality following myocardial infarction (MI), but are less likely to undergo coronary angiography than those without CKD. Whether this phenomenon is explained by differences in the presentation of MI or by bias against performing coronary angiography in patients with CKD is unclear. We examined the clinical presentation of 1876 elderly patients who presented with MI and categorized them by estimated glomerular filtration rate: >60 ml/min (no/mild CKD), 30-60 ml/min (CKD Stage 3) or <30 ml/min (CKD Stage 4/5). Compared with patients with no/mild CKD, patients with CKD Stage 3 or Stage 4/5 had more comorbidity, greater prior nursing home use, and higher frequency of conduction abnormalities or anterior infarction. By contrast, peak creatinine kinase-MB fraction (CK-MB) concentrations were lower and ST-elevation MI was less common in patients with CKD Stage 3 or Stage 4/5. In univariate analyses, patients with CKD Stage 4/5 (odds ratio (OR)=0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23-0.50) or Stage 3 (OR=0.57, 95% CI: 0.45-0.73) were markedly less likely to undergo angiography than subjects with no/mild CKD. After multivariable adjustment, the association of CKD Stage 3 with the use of coronary angiography was attenuated (OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.60-1.03), but CKD Stage 4/5 remained strongly associated with lower use (OR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.34-0.80). Clinical features of MI are different in patients with and without CKD and may partly explain the low use of angiography in patients with CKD Stage 3. However, the clinical features of MI do not account for its underuse in MI patients with CKD Stages 4/5. Whether reduced use of angiography in patients with advanced CKD is justified must be evaluated in formal risk-benefit analyses.
Kidney International 05/2007; 71(9):938-45. DOI:10.1038/sj.ki.5002159 · 8.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the relative benefit of reperfusion strategies in renal dysfunction and ST-segment elevation/left bundle branch block (STE/LBBB).
Few data are available informing the treatment of STE myocardial infarction in the presence of renal dysfunction.
Patients (N = 12,532) from the GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) presenting with STE/LBBB were stratified by renal function and receipt of fibrinolysis, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), or neither.
As renal function declined, hospital mortality increased and reperfusion decreased (both p < 0.001). Compared with no reperfusion, primary PCI was associated with lower hospital mortality in patients with normal renal function (1.9% vs. 3.7%, p = 0.001, adjusted) but no reduction in those with renal dysfunction (14% vs. 15% for glomerular filtration rate [GFR] 30 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m(2); 29% vs. 32% for GFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Fibrinolysis was not associated with lower hospital mortality for normal (3.1% vs. 3.7%, p = NS) or low renal function (32% vs. 32%, p = NS) and with higher mortality with moderate renal dysfunction (adjusted odds ratio: 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 1.80). Primary PCI was associated with increased hospital bleeding and fibrinolysis with increased stroke in all patients. Among hospital survivors, primary PCI, but not fibrinolysis, was associated with lower mortality for moderate dysfunction. Both reperfusion strategies were associated with higher mortality for severe dysfunction.
In STE/LBBB and renal dysfunction, mortality rates are high and reperfusion rates are lower. In moderate renal dysfunction, primary PCI is associated with mortality reduction at 6 months. Outcomes remain poor with severe renal dysfunction, despite receipt of reperfusion therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries is common, extensive, and more unstable among patients with chronic renal impairment or chronic kidney disease (CKD). The initial presentation of coronary disease is often acute coronary syndrome (ACS) that tends to be more complicated and has a higher risk of death in this population. Medical treatment of ACS includes antianginal agents, antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulants, and pharmacotherapies that modify the natural history of ventricular remodeling after injury. Revascularization, primarily with percutaneous coronary intervention and stenting, is critical for optimal outcomes in those at moderate and high risk for reinfarction, the development of heart failure, and death in predialysis patients with CKD. The benefit of revascularization in ACS may not extend to those with end-stage renal disease because of competing sources of all-cause mortality. In stable patients with CKD and multivessel coronary artery disease, observational studies have found that bypass surgery is associated with a reduced mortality as compared with percutaneous coronary intervention when patients are followed for several years. This article will review the guidelines-recommended therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of stable coronary atherosclerosis and ACS and give specific guidance on benefits, hazards, dose adjustments, and caveats concerning patients with baseline CKD.
Current problems in cardiology 05/2013; 38(5):165-206. DOI:10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2012.12.004 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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