Vasoactive intestinal peptide modulates luteinizing hormone subunit gene expression in the anterior pituitary in female rat

Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.
Brain Research Bulletin (Impact Factor: 2.72). 11/2005; 67(4):319-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2005.07.007
Source: PubMed


The direct monosynaptic pathway which exists between vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and GnRH neurons in the hypothalamic preoptic area provides a neuroanatomical background for the modulatory effects of VIP exerted on GnRH neurons activity. Though central microinjection of VIP revealed its involvement in the modulation of LH release pattern, there is a lack of data concerning a possible VIP influence on the alpha and LHbeta subunit gene expression in the pituitary gland. Using a model based on intracerebroventricular pulsatile peptide(s) microinjections (1 pulse/h [10 microl/5 min] over 5 h) the effect of exogenous VIP (5 nM dose) microinjection on subunits mRNA content in ovariectomized/oestrogen-pretreated rats was studied. Subsequently, to obtain data concerning the involvement of GnRH and VIP receptor(s) in the regulation of alpha and LHbeta subunit mRNA expression, OVX/estrogen-primed rats received a pulsatile microinjections of 5 nM VIP with 3 nM antide (GnRH receptor antagonist) or 5 nM VIP with 15 nM VIP 6-28 (VIP receptor antagonist). In this case, substances were given separately with a 30 min lag according to which each antagonist pulse preceded a VIP pulse. Northern-blot analysis revealed that VIP microinjection resulted in a decreased alpha and LHbeta mRNA content in pituitary gland and this effect was dependent on GnRH receptor activity. Moreover, obtained results indicated that centrally administered VIP might operate through its own receptor(s) because a receptor antagonist, VIP 6-28, blocked the inhibitory effect of VIP exerted on both LH subunit mRNA content and LH release.

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    • "As whisker stimulation induced c-Fos in GABA interneurons that selectively expressed VIP and ACh, we then evaluated the implication of these established vasoactive mediators in the evoked CBF response. Surprisingly, blockade of vasodilatory mAChR or VIP receptors using antagonists [scopolamine or VIP(6 –28)] with reported efficacy on stimulusevoked CBF responses (Nakao et al., 1999; Kocharyan et al., 2008) or other CNS functions (Gajewska et al., 2005) did not affect this hyperemic response, even after 40 or 60 min (Fig. 4C). Similarly, blockade of GABA-B receptors with CGP35348 (tested up to 10 Ϫ2 M) failed to alter the CBF response (Fig. 4C, for 10 Ϫ4 M). "
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    ABSTRACT: The whisker-to-barrel cortex is widely used to study neurovascular coupling, but the cellular basis that underlies the perfusion changes is still largely unknown. Here, we identified neurons recruited by whisker stimulation in the rat somatosensory cortex using double immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and markers of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, and investigated in vivo their contribution along with that of astrocytes in the evoked perfusion response. Whisker stimulation elicited cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases concomitantly with c-Fos upregulation in pyramidal cells that coexpressed cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and GABA interneurons that coexpressed vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and/or choline acetyltransferase, but not somatostatin or parvalbumin. The evoked CBF response was decreased by blockade of NMDA (MK-801, -37%), group I metabotropic glutamate (MPEP+LY367385, -40%), and GABA-A (picrotoxin, -31%) receptors, but not by GABA-B, VIP, or muscarinic receptor antagonism. Picrotoxin decreased stimulus-induced somatosensory evoked potentials and CBF responses. Combined blockade of GABA-A and NMDA receptors yielded an additive decreasing effect (-61%) of the evoked CBF compared with each antagonist alone, demonstrating cooperation of both excitatory and inhibitory systems in the hyperemic response. Blockade of prostanoid synthesis by inhibiting COX-2 (indomethacin, NS-398), expressed by ∼40% of pyramidal cells but not by astrocytes, impaired the CBF response (-50%). The hyperemic response was also reduced (-40%) after inhibition of astroglial oxidative metabolism or epoxyeicosatrienoic acids synthesis. These results demonstrate that changes in pyramidal cell activity, sculpted by specific types of inhibitory GABA interneurons, drive the CBF response to whisker stimulation and, further, that metabolically active astrocytes are also required.
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    ABSTRACT: Neural control of the anterior pituitary function consists of the interplay of neuropeptides action, gonadal steroid hormones and many other factors. The physiological effect of this regulatory action is the release and synthesis of protein hormones in the precise time and quantity. The main factor responsible for the gonadotropins release and synthesis is the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). We must still study the modulation of the synthesis of the gonadotropins subunits - LHbeta, FSHbeta and alpha subunit by different forms of GnRH and by its analogs, in order to better understand the regulation of gonadotropin release and synthesis. THE AIM of this study was to develop real-time PCR assays of five candidate reference genes for normalization purposes in order to quantify target transcripts in anterior pituitary cells during the preovulatory period. Moreover, we focused on the influence of GnRH receptor antagonist (antide) treatment on mRNA expression levels of GPalpha, LHbeta, FSHbeta, FST(follistatin) and PRL(prolactin) genes in these cells. Anterior pituitary cells were obtained from pituitary glands of four mature pigs at the preovulatory phase. Cells were incubated with or without antide and relative mRNA level of target genes was measured using the Applied Biosystems 7500 Real Time System. For an exact comparison of mRNA quantity, the stability of five reference genes, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, RPL1, and TOP2B was evaluated to choose the most appropriate reference gene for qRT-PCR normalization in the pituitary cells. Expression stability of reference genes was calculated using the geNorm application. The developed method of PCR assay was applied to study gene expression in pig pituitary cells in short culture. The most stably expressed genes in the pituitary cells were GAPDH and TOP2B. The expression of ACTB, B2M and RPL1 appeared to be highly unstable. After normalization to the GAPDH/TOP2B, results showed that the mRNA expression of the FSHbeta gene was highest in comparison with LHbeta, GPalpha, FST and PRL genes (p<0.005). Pre-treatment of cells by the antide resulted in lower mRNA expression of these genes, while FSHbeta mRNA had a significantly lower expression (p<0.05) in comparison with control. Real-time PCR analysis of the expression of LHbeta, FSHbeta, alpha subunit, follistatin and prolactin genes in porcine anterior pituitary cells during the preovulatory period is suitable for the study of modulatory action of metal complexes with GnRH on the expression of these genes.
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