Reference values for nocturnal home polysomnography in primary schoolchildren.
ABSTRACT Abbreviated home polysomnography may be an alternative to laboratory polysomnography in children but is not yet generally accepted, partly due to a lack of reference values. Also, there are no normative data on respiratory events obtained using nasal prongs. We determined the prevalence and frequency of central, obstructive, and mixed apneas and hypopneas in a population-based sample of 50 children (mean age 10.1 years) using abbreviated home polysomnography and nasal prongs. We also determined the frequency of movements/arousals and body position changes. All children had central apneas. Obstructive apneas, mixed apneas, and hypopneas were found in 36%, 6%, and 14% of children, respectively. Average number of central, obstructive, and mixed apneas; hypopneas; movement/arousals; and body position changes per hour of sleep was 1.5, 0.1, 0.01, 0.02, 8.2, and 3.7, respectively. The corresponding cutoff values (mean plus 2 standard deviations or 95th centile) were 3.7, 0.7, 0.1, 0.2, 13.4, and 9.1, respectively. We did not find significant gender differences regarding any sleep variable under study. The presented reference values may help clinicians and researchers to improve the interpretation of abbreviated home polysomnography in school-age children.
Article: Polysomnographic values in children undergoing puberty: pediatric vs. adult respiratory rules in adolescents.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Polysomnographic respiratory events in children should be scored using pediatric respiratory rules. However, due to a lack of data on adolescents, recently revised rules allow children aged 13-18 years to be scored by adult or pediatric criteria. To clarify which criteria to use, we describe the evolution of respiratory events with Tanner stage, and we compare events in children aged 13-18 years with the new American Academy of Sleep Medicine adult and pediatric respiratory rules. Cross-sectional Academic hospital Healthy subjects aged 8-18 years recruited for research purposes. Physical examination to determine Tanner stage, overnight polysomnogram, and determination of sex hormones. Sixty-eight subjects (Tanner 1-5) were studied, mean age [SD] = 13 +/- 3 years, median apnea hypopnea index (AHI)= 0.1 (range: 0-1.2)/h. The median percentages of total sleep time (TST) with SpO2 < 92% were 0.1 (0-4.2)%, and with end-tidal CO2 > 50 torr was 0.1 (0-88.6)%. Thirty-two subjects were aged 13-18 years, (Tanner 3-5). The difference between AHI scored by pediatric (median = 0 [0-0.9]/h) and adult (median = 0 [0 - 0.5]/h) criteria was statistically significant (P = 0.043), but not clinically relevant. Respiratory events in normal children aged 8-18 years are rare and unrelated to Tanner stage. Adult or pediatric respiratory rules can be used for scoring polysomnograms in asymptomatic subjects approaching adulthood. Further studies are needed in symptomatic children within this age group.Sleep 12/2008; 31(12):1737-44. · 5.05 Impact Factor
Article: The utility of a portable recording device for screening of obstructive sleep apnea in obese adolescents.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The ApneaLink Plus is a portable recording device that measures air flow, respiratory effort, heart rate, and pulse oximetry. In the current study, we asked whether this device could be used to screen for obstructive sleep apnea in the pediatric population. Sleep-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) was performed simultaneously with measurements using the portable device on obese pediatric patients referred for snoring. The obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI) was calculated automatically by the device (autoscore) and manually by the investigators. Sensitivity, specificity, correlation, and receiver operating curves (ROC) were used to compare the portable device to PSG. Twenty-five subjects (60% male, mean age 13.6 ± 3.0 years, OAHI on PSG 11.8 ± 27.1) were studied. We identified a significant correlation between the OAHI of the ApneaLink autoscore and PSG (Spearman Rho = 0.886 [p < 0.001]). Using the PSG results as standard, ROC curves comparing the ApneaLink OAHI with the PSG OAHI demonstrated high congruence. The autoscore agreement was very good at PSG OAHI > 1.5 (area under the receiver operating curve [AUC] 0.965, OAHI > 5 [AUC 0.937], and OAHI > 10 [AUC 1.00]). The agreement of the manual score and autoscore were essentially equivalent. The device's autoscore demonstrated high sensitivity at all cutoffs examined (100% at OAHI > 1.5, 85.7% at OAHI > 5, and 100% at OAHI > 10). The specificity increased with increasing cutoffs (46.2% at OAHI > 1.5, 83.3% at OAHI > 5, and 90.0% at OAHI > 10). he ApneaLink Plus is a sensitive screening tool for evaluation of suspected OSAS in obese pediatric patients aged 9-18 years. The specificity improves with increasing OAHI cutoffs. The device detects OSAS when tested in a sleep laboratory on obese adolescents referred for symptoms of sleep related breathing disorder.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2012; 8(3):271-7. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The relationship between sleep and mood regulation is well known, and some reports suggest a key role of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) in the development of the symptomatology of depression, even if no conclusive data are actually found in the clinical literature. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between SRBD and depressive symptoms in a population of school-aged children. The study population comprised 94 children affected by SRBD and 107 healthy children. To identify the severity of SRBD, an overnight respiratory evaluation was performed. All subjects filled out the Italian version of the Children Depression Inventory (CDI) to screen for the presence of depressive symptoms. The group with SRBD showed higher CDI scores than the group without SRBD, with a positive correlation found between CDI scores, apnea-hypopnea index, and oxygen desaturation index values. Logistic regression showed that an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 3 and an oxygen desaturation index ≥ 1 could be risk factors for development of depressive symptoms. According to receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff point for the apnea-hypopnea index that could cause a pathological CDI score (≥19) was >5.66, and the cutoff point for the oxygen desaturation index was >4.2. The limitations of this study are that our data are derived from one single psychometric test and not from a complete psychiatric evaluation, and our subjects came from a small group in southern Italy. Our results suggest the importance of mood assessment in children affected by SRBD.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2012; 8:369-73. · 1.81 Impact Factor