TPA023 [7-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-6-(2-ethyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine], an agonist selective for alpha2- and alpha3-containing GABAA receptors, is a nonsedating anxiolytic in rodents and primates.
ABSTRACT 7-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-6-(2-ethyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (TPA023) is a triazolopyridazine that binds with equivalent high (subnanomolar) affinity to the benzodiazepine binding site of recombinant human GABA(A) receptors containing an alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, or alpha5 subunit but has partial agonist efficacy at the alpha2 and alpha3 subtypes and essentially antagonist efficacy at the alpha1 and alpha5 subtypes. In rats, TPA023 gave time- and dose-dependent occupancy after oral dosing, with 50% occupancy corresponding to a dose of 0.42 mg/kg. It has anxiolytic-like activity in unconditioned (elevated plus maze) and conditioned (fear-potentiated startle and conditioned suppression of drinking) rat models of anxiety with minimum effective doses (MED; 1-3 mg/kg) corresponding to 70 to 88% occupancy. However, there was no appreciable sedation in a response sensitivity (chain-pulling) assay at a dose of 30 mg/kg, resulting in 99% occupancy. Similarly, TPA023 was robustly anxiolytic in the squirrel monkey conditioned emotional response assay, with a MED of 0.3 mg/kg, but did not produce any sedation in a lever-pressing test of sedation even at 10 mg/kg. TPA023 produced no impairment in performance in the mouse Rotarod assay, and there was only a mild interaction with ethanol. In addition to anxiolytic-like efficacy, TPA023 had anticonvulsant activity in a mouse pentylenetetrazole seizure model. Finally, TPA023 did not cause precipitated withdrawal in mice treated for 7 days with the nonselective agonist triazolam, nor did N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG 7142) precipitate withdrawal in mice treated for 7 days with TPA023. In summary, the novel alpha2/alpha3-selective efficacy profile of TPA023 translates into a nonsedating anxiolytic profile that is distinct from nonselective agonists.
SourceAvailable from: Gordon Munro[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) mediate robust analgesia in animal models of pathological pain. Restoration of diminished spinal GABAA-α2 and -α3 subunit-containing receptor function is a principal contributor to this analgesia, albeit involvement of GABAA-α5-receptors has not been excluded. Thus, we compared NS11394 and TPA023 (PAMs with selectivity/efficacy at GABAA-α2/α3/α5 receptors) with TP003 (a reportedly GABAA-α3 selective PAM) against spinal sensitization. However, in-house electrophysiology studies designed to confirm the selectivity of TPA023 and TP003 for human GABAA receptors did not corroborate published data, with TP003 displaying considerable GABAA-α5 receptor efficacy. Therefore, we identified a novel PAM, NS16085, which possesses negligible efficacy at GABAA-α5 receptors, but with GABAA-α2/α3 efficacy equivalent to NS11394. At the GABAA-α1 receptor the compound gives low level of negative modulation further separating it from the other compounds. Rat pups with carrageenan-induced hindpaw inflammatory hyperalgesia were used to make ex-vivo spinal dorsal root-evoked ventral root recordings. Some spontaneous activity and large numbers of spikes to repetitive stimulation of dorsal roots at C-fibre intensity, indicative of wind-up and sensitization were observed. Equimolar concentrations of NS11394, TP003 and NS16085 all attenuated wind-up to a similar degree; TPA023 was clearly less effective. In adult rats, NS16085 (3-30 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently reduced formalin-induced hindpaw flinching with efficacy comparable to NS11394. Thus, potentiation of GABAA-α2 and-α3 receptors is sufficient to depress spinal sensitization and mediate analgesia after inflammatory injury. Positive modulation at GABAA-α5-receptors is apparently dispensable for this process, an important consideration given the role of this receptor subtype in cognitive function.Biochemical Pharmacology 12/2014; 93(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2014.12.010 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anxiety disorders are a major public health concern. Here, we examine the familiar area of anxiolysis in the context of a systems-level understanding that will hopefully lead to revealing an underlying pharmacological connectome. The introduction of benzodiazepines nearly half a century ago markedly improved the treatment of anxiety disorders. These agents reduce anxiety rapidly by allosterically enhancing the postsynaptic actions of GABA at inhibitory type A GABA receptors but side effects limit their use in chronic anxiety disorders. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors have emerged as an effective first-line alternative treatment of such anxiety disorders. However, many individuals are not responsive and side effects can be limiting. Research into a relatively new class of agents known as neurosteroids has revealed novel modulatory sites and mechanisms of action that are providing insights into the pathophysiology of certain anxiety disorders, potentially bridging the gap between the GABAergic and serotonergic circuits underlying anxiety. However, translating the pharmacological activity of compounds targeted to specific receptor subtypes in rodent models of anxiety to effective therapeutics in human anxiety has not been entirely successful. Since modulating any one of several broad classes of receptor targets can produce anxiolysis, we posit that a systems-level discovery platform combined with an individualized medicine approach based on noninvasive brain imaging would substantially advance the development of more effective therapeutics.Pharmacological Reviews 10/2014; 66(4):1002-1032. DOI:10.1124/pr.114.009126 · 18.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Benzodiazepine drugs, through interaction with GABA(A alpha 1), GABA(A alpha 2,3), and GABA(A alpha 5) subunits, modulate cortical network oscillations, as reflected by a complex signature in the EEG power spectrum. Recent drug discovery efforts have developed GABA(A alpha 2,3) -subunit-selective partial modulators in an effort to dissociate the side effect liabilities from the efficacy imparted by benzodiazepines. Here, we evaluated rat EEG and behavioral end points during dosing of nine chemically distinct compounds that we confirmed statistically to selectively to enhance GABA(A alpha 2,3)-mediated vs. GABA(A alpha 1) or GABA(A alpha 5) currents in voltage clamped oocytes transfected with those GABA A subunits. These compounds were shown with in vivo receptor occupancy techniques to competitively displace [H-3] flumazenil in multiple brain regions following peripheral administration at increasing doses. Over the same dose range, the compounds all produced dose-dependent EEG spectral power increases in the beta- and and gamma-bands. Finally, the dose range that increased gamma-power coincided with that eliciting punished over unpunished responding in a behavioral conflict model of anxiety, indicative of anxiolysis without sedation. EEG gamma-band power increases showed a significant positive correlation to in vitro GABA(A alpha 2,3) modulatory intrinsic activity across the compound set, further supporting a hypothesis that this EEG signature was linked specifically to pharmacological modulation of GABA(A alpha 2,3) signaling. These findings encourage further evaluation of this EEG signature as a noninvasive clinical translational biomarker that could ultimately facilitate development of GABA(A alpha 2,3) -subtype-selective drugs for anxiety and potentially other indications.Journal of Neurophysiology 01/2015; 113(1):116-131. DOI:10.1152/jn.00539.2013 · 3.04 Impact Factor